Cryptocurrency Glossary

Learn all the key crypto terms right here



Abenomics is the economic strategy implemented by Shinzo Abe of Japan. It is made up of three arrows: monetary policy, fiscal stimulus and structural reforms.

Abnormal Return

Abnormal return is when a security or asset has unusually high profits over a certain time period.

Absolute Advantage

Absolute advantage is when a company can produce the same product as other companies but with fewer resources.

Absolute Return

Absolute return is a term used to describe the gain or loss of an investment over a specific period of time.

Accredited Investors

An accredited investor is someone who is allowed to invest in opportunities that are not open to the general public. They must meet certain qualifications, such as having a high income or being a qualified institution. This allows them to have access to opportunities that may be more risky, but could also lead to greater rewards.

Accumulation Phase

The accumulation phase is a stage in the market cycle where institutional investors start buying in tranches, signaling a positive uptrend soon. This phase usually happens right after a downtrend, when the market is starting to rebound.

Accumulation/Distribution Indicator

The accumulation/distribution indicator shows how much demand and supply there is for a stock/asset/cryptocurrency by multiplying the closing price of a specific period with volume.

Aeternity Blockchain

A blockchain network that uses a combination of Proof of Work and Proof of Stake to reach consensus.

Aggressive Investment Strategy

An aggressive investment strategy is a high-risk investment strategy that strives to earn the highest possible profits from investments in financial markets.

Aggregate Demand

In an economy, the total demand for all finished services and goods produced is called aggregate demand.

Advance/Decline Line (A/D Line)

The A/D line is a technical indicator that measures the difference between the number of stocks that are increasing in value and decreasing in value on a day-to-day basis.

Cryptocurrency Address

Cryptocurrency can be sent to and from an online wallet, which is a string of letters and numbers.

Adaptive State Sharding

Adaptive State Sharding is a technique that uses a combination of all different types of sharding to improve communication and performance.

Algorithmic Stablecoin

An algorithmic stablecoin is a cryptocurrency that is stabilized through an algorithm. This algorithm can issue more coins when the price of the coin increases and buy them off the market when the price falls.

Alternative Investments

A person who trades cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin.

Altcoin Trader

A person who trades cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin.


Altcoins are cryptocurrencies that were created after Bitcoin. They are alternative options to Bitcoin and are often used to refer to any cryptocurrency that is not Bitcoin.


Alphanumeric phrases are combinations of letters and numbers, or other characters.

Alpha Version

Alpha versions are preliminary versions of software, released to test its usability and interface.


Alpha measures how an investment performed in comparison to the overall market.


The distribution or assignment of resources in a business over time is known as allotment.

Allocation Efficiency

Organizational efficiency can be improved by allocating resources in an efficient way. This means using resources in the most effective way possible to achieve the organization's goals.


Allocation refers to the distribution of equity or tokens that may be earned, bought, or reserved by a specific team, group, investor, institution, or other similar entity.

All-Time-Low (ATL)

The all-time lowest point that a cryptocurrency has ever been is called the all-time-low (ATH).

All-Time-High (ATH)

The highest point that a cryptocurrency has ever been is called its all-time-high (ATH). This is the most a coin has been worth at any given time in its history. The all-time-low (ATL) is the opposite, and is the lowest point that a coin has ever been worth.

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs)

Algorithmic Market Operations (AMOs) help to automate the control of the supply of algorithmic stablecoins. This improves scalability, decentralization, and transparency.

Algo-Trading (Algorithmic Trading)

Algo-trading is a system where orders are placed automatically according to a set of rules. This can be done by a computer program or algorithm.


Airnode is an oracle node and API gateway that enables API providers to easily deploy and use the API3 blockchain protocol to put their data feeds on-chain.


A marketing campaign that distributes a specific cryptocurrency or token to an audience can be a great way to generate interest in the currency or token. By targeting potential investors or users, a marketing campaign can help increase awareness and adoption of a new cryptocurrency or token.


Anonymity is when something is not known or named. This could be because the person or thing is unknown, or because it has been intentionally kept hidden.

Amazon S3

S3 is a cloud storage service that is easy to use and scalable. It is perfect for storing and retrieving data anytime and anywhere.

Amended Return

An amended return is a revised version of your original tax return. This can be done for a number of reasons, including making corrections to information on the return, or adding new information. Amending your tax return may also result in a refund if you are entitled to one.


The European Union has updated its Anti-Money Laundering framework with the 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive. This directive updates the rules for preventing money laundering in the EU. The new rules focus on digital currencies and online platforms, and aim to make it harder for criminals to use these technologies to launder money.

aNFT (Autonomous NFT)

aNFTs (autonomous NFTs) are self-contained tokens that can be programmed to initiate their own transactions. Every aNFT can be designed to do any on-chain action in response to any on or off-chain condition.

Angel Investor

An investor is someone who provides financial backing for a new business or startup. This can be in the form of money, assets, or services. Investors generally hope to see a return on their investment, either through profits made by the business or through the sale of their shares in the company.

Annual Percentage Rate (APR)

The annual percentage rate (APR) is the percentage of interest that needs to be paid on a loan each year. This rate is determined by multiplying the periodic interest rate by the number of periods in a year that the periodic rate is used.

Annual Percentage Yield (APY)

The annual percentage yield (APY) is the rate of return that you can expect to gain over the course of a year on a specific investment. This number takes into account the compounding interest, which is computed on a regular basis and applied to the amount.

Anti-dump/Anti-Dumping Policy

In the world of blockchain, the anti-dumping policy is a set of rules that protects investors from being scammed by a pump and dump scheme. In this type of scam, a large number of tokens are purchased by an investor (whale) to artificially increase the token's value. The whale then dumps the tokens at a much higher price, causing losses to investors who purchased the asset later.


An arbitrageur is a type of investor who takes advantage of pricing inefficiencies between two different markets. They buy low in one market and sell high in another, making a profit in the process. This is possible because the prices of the same asset can vary from one market to another. By exploiting these price differences, arbitrageurs can make money regardless of which market is moving up or down.

Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)

The arbitrage pricing theory (APT) is a framework for analyzing how efficiently financial markets operate and identifying potential arbitrage opportunities.


Arbitrage is the act of buying an asset in one market and then selling it immediately in another market in order to take advantage of price differences between the two markets.

AR Token (Arweave)

AR is a token used on the Arweave platform.

Application Layer

The top-most layer of a seven-layered OSI model is responsible for managing communication between devices on a network. This layer is also responsible for ensuring that data is properly formatted and routed to the correct destination.


API stands for Application Programming Interface. It is a set of rules that dictate how software components should interact with each other. This can include what data to use and what actions to take.


When a trader buys a new cryptocurrency token shortly after it is released without doing much research, this is called apeing.


A piece of software that is designed to protect your computer from being attacked by viruses or other malicious software.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

Cryptocurrency money laundering laws are a set of international laws that aim to restrict criminal organizations or individuals from laundering money through cryptocurrencies into real-world cash.


Anti-Malware software protects your computer from being infected by malware. It detects and removes any malware that is already on your computer, and also provides protection against future infections.


An asset's resilience means that it performs better when exposed to volatility and shocks.

Ask Price

The ask price is the minimum price that a seller is willing to accept for an asset.

Autonomous Economic Agent (AEA)

This is a solution by and the IOTA Foundation that can act autonomously to benefit its owner economically.

Automated Market Maker (AMM) [Updated]

An automated market maker (AMM) is a system that creates liquidity for the exchange it operates in through automated trading.

Authority Masternode (VeChain)

An authority masternode is a network-connected server that helps run the VeChainThor full node program.


Authentication is a way to ensure that someone is who they say they are before giving them access to sensitive information. This can be done with passwords, SMS codes, fingerprints, and other methods of identification.

Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented reality is an experience that uses computer-generated information to improve the value and usage of real-world items. This can be done through various sensory modalities, such as sound, touch, smell, and sight.


An audit is a process where developers inspect the code and/or algorithms that compose systems and applications. This helps to find any potential security vulnerabilities, bugs, or other issues. It can also help to improve the code and make it more secure.


An auction is a public sale where people bid on an asset until it is sold to the highest bidder.

Attestation Ledger

An attestation ledger is a book used to keep track of individual transactions. It is generally used to prove that a financial transaction took place, or to show that a product is authentic.


AtomicDEX offers a cryptocurrency wallet and decentralized exchange in one application that is available for multiple platforms. This makes it easy for users to store and trade their cryptocurrencies without having to use multiple applications. AtomicDEX also has a user-friendly interface that makes it easy to use.

Atomic Swap

Cryptocurrency can be transferred between two people without the use of an exchange or other intermediary.


Async events happen at different times, and not always at the same rate.


The act of disguising marketing campaigns or other sponsored messages as the unprompted views of genuine community members.

Assets Under Management (AUM)

The total market value of the funds an individual or institution manages is called assets under management.

Asset-Backed Tokens

Asset-backed tokens are digital claims on a physical asset. This means that you can own a token that is linked to a specific physical asset, such as gold or oil. These tokens are backed by the asset that they represent, so they offer a way to invest in physical commodities without having to go through the hassle of owning and storing them yourself.


This term usually applies to blockchains and mining algorithms, designed to give no advantage for ASICs over consumer grade hardware. This makes it easier for everyday people to participate in mining and use the blockchain technology.


An ASIC is a device specifically designed to mine cryptocurrencies.


Shorting Bitcoin can lead to a total loss of the trader's investment capital. This can happen if the price of Bitcoin drops too low, and the trader is unable to cover their short position.

Aroon Indicator

The Aroon indicator is used to identify changes in an ongoing trend and gauge the strength of that trend in financial markets. It can help you determine when a trend has begun, when it might be ending, and how strong it is. This can be helpful in making informed investment decisions.

Arm Virtual Machine (Qtum)

Qtum's virtual machine allows users to execute applications in a decentralized way. This means that the applications are not run on a centralized server, but rather on many different computers around the world. This makes the applications more secure, because it is much harder for someone to hack into a centralized server than it is to hack into many different computers.

Average Return

The average return is the mean value of a sequence of returns generated over a specified period of time. This is calculated by taking the sum of all the returns within that time period and dividing it by the number of returns. This gives you the average or mean return for that time period.

Average Annual Growth Rate (AAGR)

The mean annual return is a calculation of how much an investment, portfolio, or asset grows on average each year.

Average Annual Return (AAR)

An annual average return is a percentage that reflects a company's historical performance. It is calculated by averaging the company's annual returns over a period of time.

Average Directional Index (ADX)

The ADX is a technical indicator that measures how strong a market trend is. It does this by looking at the price moving averages and assigns a value between 1 and 100, with 100 representing the strongest trend.


Back-to-Back Letters of Credit

A back-to-back letter of credit is when two letters of credit are used consecutively to carry out a financial transaction through a third party.

Bear Trap

Price manipulation is when a group of traders tries to control the price of a specific cryptocurrency. This can be done by buying and selling the currency at certain times to create an artificial demand, or by spreading false information to create a panic sell.

Bear Market

When prices of assets in a market fall by 20% or more from recent highs, it is often called a bear market. This happens when investor confidence is low and the economy and market turn pessimistic.


A person who believes that prices in a given market will decline over an extended period might be referred to as "bearish." This person is pessimistic about the future of the market and believes that prices will continue to go down.

Beacon Chain

A beacon chain is an integral part of a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) cryptocurrency, such as Ethereum 2.0. It helps coordinate the many different shard chains, which are smaller versions of the blockchain ledger that divide up transactions between multiple nodes in order to make them faster and more efficient.

Batch Auctions

Batch auctions are a trading mechanism in which orders are grouped together and executed simultaneously. This allows buyers and sellers to trade more efficiently by minimizing the number of individual transactions that need to be executed.


A basket of digital currencies is a collection of different types of cryptocurrencies that are managed as a single asset. This allows investors to spread their risk out across different types of digital currencies, rather than investing in just a single one.

Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)

The Bank Secrecy Act was implemented in the United States in 1970 to prevent criminals from laundering their illegal gains. This law requires banks to keep track of their customers' financial activities and report any suspicious behavior to the authorities. This helps to ensure that criminals can't use the banking system to hide their illegal profits.

Banking as a Service (BaaS)

Banks can use Baas platforms to provide transparency to their customers by letting third parties develop new services using their APIs. This lets customers have a higher level of understanding of their bank's financial workings and operations.


Bandwidth is the term used to describe the amount of data that can be transmitted over a network in a given period of time. This includes both the amount of data that can be sent in one direction and the amount that can be sent in both directions at the same time.


Baking is a process that is used to add new blocks of transactions to the Tezos blockchain. This is done by Tezos in order to keep a record of all the transactions that have taken place on its blockchain.


Baking is the process that Tezos uses to add new blocks of transactions to its blockchain. This is done by Tezos participants, called "bakers", who are rewarded for their work with transaction fees and newly-minted Tezos tokens. Bakers must meet certain requirements, including staking a minimum amount of Tezos tokens, in order to be eligible to bake.


An investor who continues to hold a specific coin or token, regardless of its performance, is known as a bag holder.


Crypto slang for a large quantity of a specific cryptocurrency. Alternatively (but less frequently) used to refer to the contents of an individual's crypto portfolio.

Backflush Costing (Backflush Accounting)

An accounting method that assigns costs to products after the completion of production.

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

The BIS is an international financial institution that tries to promote global monetary stability.

Big Tech

The biggest and most successful technology companies are often referred to as "Big Tech." This includes companies like Facebook, Apple, Google, and Amazon, who enjoy a large market share in their respective industries.

Binance Labs

The Binance Labs project is devoted to nurturing, investing in, and developing blockchain and cryptocurrency businesses, initiatives, and communities. It also has a social impact fund to help support these goals.

Binance Launchpad

Binance Launchpad offers startups a platform to raise capital and market their projects to millions of crypto investors in the Binance ecosystem. This can be a great opportunity for startups to get their project off the ground. The process is rigorous, but if your project is selected, Binance will do everything they can to help you succeed.

Binary Code

Binary code is a system that uses two symbols, 0 and 1, to represent text, computer commands, or any other type of data. This code is based on numbers, which makes it a very efficient way to store information.


A bit is a very small unit of information in computing. It can store just a single letter, number, or symbol. This makes it perfect for encoding and decoding data.

Bitcoin ATM (BTM)

An ATM that allows you to buy and sell Bitcoin.

Bitcoin DApps

DApps that are run on blockchains powered by Bitcoin and that take advantage of Bitcoin's features are known as Bitcoin DApps.

Bitcoin Dominance (BTCD)

Bitcoin Dominance is a metric that determines how much of the overall crypto market is owned by Bitcoin. This is measured by taking into account the total market cap of all cryptocurrencies and then dividing it by the market cap of Bitcoin.

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)

Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs) are documents that propose changes to the Bitcoin protocol. These proposals can be anything from new features to bug fixes. Anyone can submit a BIP, but proposals are only accepted if they meet certain criteria.

Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI)

The Bitcoin Misery Index (BMI) is a tool used by investors to measure how happy they are with their investment. The scale goes from 0 to 100, where 0 means that you're very unhappy with your investment and 100 means that you're very happy.


BEP-721 is a token standard that enables the generation of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on the Binance Smart Chain (BSC). It is based on the ERC-721 standard, which is one of the most popular NFT standards.

Bid Price

The price that someone is willing to pay for a security, asset, commodity, service, or contract is called the bid price.


A bearwhale is a person who has a lot of cryptocurrencies and uses their account to drive the price down so they can make a profit.


Benchmarking is a way to see if there is a gap between the performance of your asset or investment portfolio and similar ones. This can help you figure out where you need to improve in order to bridge that gap.

Benchmark Index

A benchmark index is a security that is used to track the progress of the broader market. It can be used as a gauge to see how well the market is doing overall.

BEP-2 (Binance Chain Tokenization Standard)

The purpose of this technical standard is to create a common format for tokens on Binance Chain. This will allow different tokens to be easily interchangeable and will help to ensure that all tokens on the chain operate smoothly.


BEP-20 is a token standard created to extend ERC-20 that has the intention of being used on the Binance Smart Chain.

BEP-95 (Bruno Hard Fork Upgrade)

The BEP-95 upgrade is designed to speed up the token burning process on the Binance Exchange. This will help to improve the overall efficiency of the exchange and benefit all users.

Beta (Release)

A software pre-release stage where a set number of users and third-party software testers can access it for testing under real-world settings.

Bid-Ask Spread

The bid-ask spread is the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay for an asset and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept. This measures how much the market values an asset and can give investors an idea of how liquid the asset is. Generally, a narrower spread means that there is more liquidity in the market.


Configuration data that is loaded onto an FPGA is called a bitstream.

Bitcoin NFTs

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are unique digital assets that are minted on Bitcoin-powered blockchains and secured by the Bitcoin network. This makes them Bitcoin NFTs.

Bitcoin Pizza

Bitcoin Pizza Day refers to the day where a guy, named Laszlo Hanyecz, paid 10,000 Bitcoins for two pizzas. This was the first real world transaction of Bitcoin.


A person who is optimistic about Bitcoin.


Bitcointalk is a popular online forum that focuses on Bitcoin, cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. It provides a place for users to discuss these topics and share information.


This is a business license that allows regulated virtual currency activities to take place, issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services.


BitPay is a company that allows people to use Bitcoin to pay for things.


A subunit of a single Bitcoin

Black Hat Hacker

Malware is a term used to describe software that is specifically designed to be used for malicious purposes, such as stealing data from computer networks and systems.

Block Trade

A block trade is a large-scale purchase or sale of securities that take place outside of an open market. It uses a blockhouse as a financial intermediary to help investors with risk management.

Block Time

Block time is the amount of time it takes for a new block to be created on a blockchain-based system.

Block Size

The block size is the amount of data that a single block in the blockchain can hold about transactions. This can include the details of the transactions themselves, as well as other information about the block itself.

Block Reward

The rewards that a miner or group of miners receive for solving the cryptographic problem required to create a new block on a given blockchain.

Block Producer

A block producer is a person or group whose hardware is chosen to verify a block's transactions and begin the next block on most Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchains.

Block Height

The number of blocks preceding a given block in the blockchain is called the "block height."

Block Header

A block header is a unique identifier for a block on a blockchain that is hashed on a continuous basis to prove that the block is legitimate and to supply mining incentives.

Block Explorer

An application that allows a user to view details of specific blocks on a given blockchain. This is also known as a blockchain browser.


The file contains information on the transactions that were completed during a given time period. Blocks are the parts of a blockchain that contain this information.


Blake-256 is a hash algorithm designed to be very secure and efficient. It was created by Jean-Philippe Aumasson, Luca Henzen, Willi Meier, and Raphael C.-W. Phan.

Black Swan Event

A black swan event is an unexpected occurrence that has a major impact.

Blockchain-Enabled Smart Locks

Blockchain-enabled smart locks are a great solution to many security issues. They can be locked or unlocked based on the state of a variable that is embedded in a smart contract. This makes them more secure than traditional locks.

Bug Exploit

A bug exploit is an attack that takes advantage of a system's vulnerabilities in order to gain access to it or damage it.

Bug Bounty

A reward is offered for anyone who can identify vulnerabilities in software.


When an asset is traded at a price that is higher than the asset's underlying value, this is known as a "bubble." This can be harmful to the market because it can lead to an overvaluation of assets, which can then burst and cause a market crash.


A blockchain bridge is a way to move data or tokens between two different blockchain projects. It allows for a smooth transfer of information without any interruptions.

Brian Armstrong

Brian Armstrong is the founder of Coinbase, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the United States. He founded Coinbase in 2012, and it has since become one of the most popular exchanges available. Armstrong is a big believer in cryptocurrencies, and he hopes that Coinbase can help to promote their widespread adoption.


In the world of cryptocurrencies, there are different types of forks. A hard fork is when a cryptocurrency splits in two, and users on the old blockchain are not able to use the new one. A soft fork is when a cryptocurrency updates its code, and users on the old blockchain are still able to use it. Cryptocurrency bounties are rewards that users receive for completing tasks assigned to them by a given blockchain project. These tasks can vary from promoting the project on social media, to contributing code to the project's open source repository.

Brave Browser

Brave Browser


Cryptocurrency bounties are rewards users receive for completing tasks assigned to them by a given blockchain project. These tasks can vary from promoting the project on social media, to contributing code to the project's open source repository.


An automated software that can carry out tasks such as cryptocurrency trades is something that would be very useful. This software would be able to help with a variety of different tasks, including buying and selling cryptocurrencies.

Bonding Curve

A bonding curve is a graph that shows how the price of a good or service changes with the availability of that good or service. The curve will usually show a downward sloping line, as increased availability leads to a decreased price. This can be useful for companies looking to set prices for their products and services.

Blockchain Trilemma

The blockchain trilemma is the set of three issues that all blockchains face: decentralization, security, and scalability.

Blockchain Transmission Protocol (BTP)

BTP allows different blockchains to work together by securely anchoring transactions using a common protocol. This allows for smooth and secure cooperation between different blockchain ecosystems.

Blockchain Mutual Credit

Mutual credit is a system in which multiple parties can exchange goods and services without the need for a third party to mediate the transaction. This is done by using a blockchain-based system in which each participant has a credit rating that is updated as they earn and spend credits. This allows for the creation of stable cryptocurrencies that can be used within mutual credit networks.

Blockchain Explorer

A blockchain explorer is like a search engine for blockchain data. It lets you browse through the records on the blockchain.

Blockchain 3.0

Blockchain 3.0 refers to the stage of blockchain technology development that predicts global, institutional and enterprise adoption.

Blockchain 2.0

Blockchain 2.0 is a newer extension to blockchain technology that builds on the original concept of decentralization of business and markets through the use of smart contracts. Security and transparency are improved, making it a more viable option for businesses and other organizations.

Blockchain 1.0

The first generation of blockchain technology is focused on cryptocurrency and decentralization. This technology has the potential to revolutionize how we interact with the digital world.


A distributed ledger system is a sequence of blocks, or units of digital information, that are stored consecutively in a public database. The basis for cryptocurrencies, this system allows for secure and transparent transactions to take place between parties.

Bollinger Band

Bollinger Bands is a tool used by traders to identify patterns in prices. It is a band that is plotted two standard deviations away from the simple moving average or exponential moving average in some cases. This can help traders identify potential buying and selling opportunities.


A person who is optimistic and confident that prices will go up is called a "bullish" investor.

Byzantine Generals’ Problem

When a group or party cannot agree on a single strategy, they can't be trusted to communicate effectively.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the property of a computer system that allows it to reach consensus regardless of the failure of some of its components. This means that if part of the system fails, the rest of the system can still work properly. This is important for systems that need to be reliable, because it means that they can continue to function even if some of their components are not working correctly.

Byron Phase

Byron is the first phase of Cardano that was released in September 2017. It is a platform that allows users to create and use decentralized applications.

Buy Wall

A buy wall is a large order placed on a cryptocurrency exchange with the intention of buying up a large chunk of the available supply.

Buy The (F*******) Dip (BTD/BTFD)

When prices are low, it's a great time to buy cryptocurrencies! This is an enthusiastic exclamation by supporters of a cryptocurrency to encourage others to buy while prices are low.


Cryptocurrency tokens or coins that are burned have been purposely and permanently removed from circulation.

Bull Trap

A bull trap is an event that happens when a declining asset seems to reverse and go up, but then returns to its downward trend.

Bull Run

A bull run is a period of time where the prices of assets are constantly going up.

Bull Market

A bull market is a time when prices for assets like stocks and cryptocurrencies rise dramatically. During this time, investors and buyers are both motivated to participate. However, it's important to note that this is not a permanent state and can last for months or even years.

Byzantium Fork

The Byzantium hard fork was an update to the Ethereum blockchain that aimed to make it more suitable for commercial use, by improving the speed of transactions and increasing security.



Cash is the most easily accessible form of money: you can use it to buy things quickly and easily. It's made up of physical coins and banknotes.

Cascading Liquidations

Cascading liquidation is an event where a bunch of liquidations happen one after the other, which can lead to a sudden price change.

Casascius Coin

A Bitcoin physical unit that is in the form of brass, silver or gold-plated coins.


Capitulation is when you sell your assets or cryptocurrencies at a significant loss because you have lost hope that they will increase in price.

Capital Funds

Capital funding is the money a company uses to finance its operations. This can come in the form of debt, such as a loan, or equity, such as through selling shares of the company.

Capital Efficiencies

Capital efficiency is a measure of how well a company grows its revenue while keeping its costs low. It is calculated by dividing the company's spending on growing revenue by how much it earns in profits.


Money that is used for investments is called capital. It is usually a large sum of money.


A candlestick chart is a graph that is used to show the change in price over time. Each candle provides four points of information: the opening price, the closing price, the high, and the low. This type of graph is also known as a "candle" for short.

Call Options

An option is a contract that gives the holder the right to buy or sell an underlying asset at a set price.

Chunk (NEAR)

A chunk is a fraction of a block that is produced as a result of sharding in the NEAR protocol.

Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME)

The Chicago Mercantile Exchange is a large futures and options exchange in the United States.


A chargeback is when money is returned to the person who paid for a transaction. This usually happens when someone pays with a credit or debit card.

Changpeng Zhao (CZ)

Changpeng Zhao (CZ) is the founder of Binance, one of the world's largest cryptocurrency exchanges. He started developing Binance in summer 2017 and launched the exchange in October of that year. Since then, it has become one of the most popular exchanges due to its low fees and user-friendly interface.

Change Address

Change addresses are used to store the change from a transaction, which is temporarily stored before it is returned to the sender's wallet.


The number of coins that are sent back to a user after they use their unspent outputs to initiate a transaction is called "change." This is a relevant concept for cryptocurrencies that use the UTXO model.

Chain Split

A chain split is another term used to describe when a cryptocurrency forks. This is when a single original coin is separated into several independently managed projects.

Chain Reorganization

Chain reorganization is a process that allows node operators to replace blocks and adopt new ones in order to create new, longer chains of data. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as fixing errors or implementing new features.

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a type of investment where you put money in and then earn a set interest rate over a certain period of time. This is different from a regular savings account, which usually has a lower interest rate. Certificates of deposit are offered by banks, and you can usually choose between different terms depending on how long you want to keep your money in the investment.

Centre (Consortium)

The new consortium will be made up of Coinbase and Circle, and will manage the USD Coin currency.

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

Centralized exchanges are a type of exchange that is owned and operated by a company in a centralized manner. This means that the company controls all aspects of the exchange, including security, functionality, and customer support.


A centralized organizational structure is one in which a single entity or a small number of them are in control of an entire network. This type of organization can be problematic, as it can lead to a lack of communication and collaboration among team members. Additionally, it can also make it difficult for new employees to join the company.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A CPU is the part of a computer that interprets and executes programs. It also coordinates the work of all other components.

Central Ledger

A central ledger is a book or computer file used to track financial transactions in a centralized way.

Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

CBDCs are digital currencies that are issued by a central bank. Their status as legal tender depends on government regulation or law.

Central Bank

The central bank is responsible for setting and implementing monetary policy, as well as regulating banks. This helps to ensure the stability of the economy and protect consumers.

Censorship Resistance

Censorship resistance is the idea that no one can prevent anyone from participating in a given platform or network. This means that the platform or network is resistant to censorship.


Censorship is the act of altering, suppressing, or prohibiting speech or writing that is considered harmful to the general public.


CeDeFi is a new type of financial system that combines traditional centralized financial services with decentralized applications. This allows for a merge of conventional regulatory policies with modern financial products and infrastructure.

Casper (Ethereum)

Casper is a project designed to improve the Ethereum network by implementing a proof-of-stake protocol.

Collateral Tokens

In cryptocurrency, collateral tokens are used as a safeguard against losing funds when borrowing other types of crypto tokens. This is done by requiring the borrowers to put up a certain amount of collateral in the form of a different token. If the borrower fails to repay the debt, they lose the collateral.

Collateral Factor

Collateral Factor is the percentage of a user's assets that they can borrow, based on the total amount of assets supplied.

Collateral Cap

Collateral cap is a security feature used in lending protocols to reduce the risk of any one asset. This is done by requiring that lenders put up collateral in multiple different assets in order to receive loans. This spreads the risk out and makes it less likely that an individual asset will cause a problem if something goes wrong.


A collateral is any asset that a lender takes as security to ensure that the borrower repays a loan. This can be in the form of property, such as a house or car, or it can be in the form of assets such as stocks or bonds. By taking collateral, the lender is essentially protecting themselves from losing money if the borrower fails to repay the loan.

Cold Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is not connected to the internet.

Cold Storage

Cryptocurrencies can be stored offline in a variety of ways, including hardware wallets, USB drives, offline computers, or paper wallets. These methods are typically non-custodial, meaning the cryptocurrencies are stored on the user's device and not held by a third party. This provides a high level of security and peace of mind when it comes to storing cryptocurrencies.

Coinbase Transaction

In a new block, the first transaction is a coinbase transaction in which the miner receives Bitcoins and mining fees. This transaction is used to reward the miner for creating the block.


In cryptocurrencies that use a proof-of-work mining system, a coinbase is the number of coins that are generated as a reward for mining a new block.


A coin is a type of digital currency that can be used independently or as part of a larger system.


The purpose of coding is to write instructions for a computer program.


A person or entity that has access to a cryptocurrency wallet, but does not have full control over it.

Cloud Mining

Cryptocurrency mining can now be done with the help of remote processing power rented from companies. This means that those with little to no technical expertise can still participate in the mining process.


Cloud servers are usually situated in different data centers all over the world.


The closing price is the final price of a security or investment at the end of a trading day. It's similar to the term used in stock trading.


A client is a computer program that can access and process blockchain transactions. A common application of this is a cryptocurrency software wallet.

Circulating Supply

The approximate number of coins that are circulating in the market and in the general public's hands is difficult to determine. However, it is safe to say that there are a lot of coins in circulation. This is because many people have started to invest in cryptocurrencies, and as a result, the demand for coins has increased.


Circle is the company that created the USDC digital currency.


Ciphertext is a result of encryption that has been performed on plaintext through the usage of an algorithm. What this means is that when you encrypt something, it will turn into ciphertext. This is done by using a specific algorithm which will change the plaintext into something that is unreadable to anyone who doesn't have the key to decrypt it.


A cipher is a type of code that can be used to encrypt and decrypt information.

Contract Account

A contract account is an account that contains a code and has a balance of cryptocurrencies.


Cryptocurrencies use smart contracts to execute functions on their blockchain. These contracts are binding agreements between two parties. Smart contracts are a more efficient and secure way of conducting transactions than traditional contracts.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

A CPI is a measure of price changes over time for a given set of goods and services. This type of index is used to track market segments and understand how inflation is affecting certain parts of the population.

Consortium Blockchain

A consortium of companies uses a private blockchain to securely share information that is not available to the public. The blockchain is immutable and transparent, so the companies can rely on it to keep their data safe.


ConsenSys is a company that uses blockchain technology to offer developer tools and enterprise solutions.

Consensus Mechanism

A consensus mechanism is a process that allows all blockchain technology users to come to an agreement about the validity of new blocks. This is essential for all cryptocurrencies as it allows them to keep track of who owns which coins, and prevents people from spending the same coins twice.


The consensus algorithm allows all participants of the network to agree on the order and content of the blocks in the blockchain. This allows the blockchain to remain secure and tamper-proof.


A cryptocurrency transaction is considered confirmed when it is included in a block on the blockchain. This means that the transaction is verified and locked into the blockchain. Each new block after the first one is an additional confirmation for that transaction.


In cryptocurrency, a confirmation is a measure of how many blocks have been mined since a transaction was added to a blockchain.

Concentrated Liquidity

Concentrated liquidity allows LPs to invest their money more efficiently and opens up opportunities for a variety of liquidity provision strategies.

Composable Token

A composable token is an ERC-998 token, which is a standard extension to any non-fungible token. This allows for non-fungible tokens to own other non-fungible and fungible tokens.

Composable DeFi

The interoperability between different DeFi protocols allows for a variety of different applications and financial products to be created. This allows people to take advantage of the different features offered by each protocol and create new products that wouldn't be possible otherwise.

COMP Token

The native asset of the Compound protocol is ether. This means that the Compound protocol uses ether as its primary currency. Ether is used to pay for fees associated with borrowing and lending money on the Compound protocol.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is responsible for regulating the U.S. derivatives market. This market includes products like futures and options, which are contracts that allow traders to bet on the future price of things like commodities, stocks, and bonds.


Commingling of funds is a way to combine money from different investors into a single investment in order to get the most benefit from it.

Collateralized Stablecoin

A collateralized stablecoin is a type of stablecoin that is backed by collateral held in reserve. This means that the stablecoin is secured by assets that can be liquidated if needed in order to maintain the stability of the coin's value.

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation (CMO)

A collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) is a package of mortgages that are bundled together and sold to investors.

Collateralized Debt Position (CDP)

A collateralized debt position is when you hold a position by locking collateral in smart contracts to generate stablecoins.

Collateralized Debt Obligation

A collateralized debt obligation (CDO) is a type of investment security that pools together different types of loans and assets. This allows big investment firms with a lot of capital to invest in a CDO.


Collateralization is when you use one asset to back up a loan for another asset. This process can help secure a loan and protect the lender in case of default.


Cryptoassets are digital assets that use cryptographic technologies to maintain their operation as a currency or decentralized application. These technologies can include things like blockchain technology or distributed ledgers.

Crypto Winter

Crypto winter is a time when the prices of major coins fall dramatically. This happens when the market becomes saturated with digital currencies and investors start to sell their holdings. The market usually rebounds after this period, so it's important to watch for buying opportunities.

Crypto Loan

A crypto loan is a type of secured loan, similar to an auto or student loan, in which you commit to an asset as collateral in order to secure financing. This means that if you can't pay back the loan, the lender can take your asset to cover their losses.

Crypto Invoicing

Cryptocurrencies offer an interesting way to pay for goods and services, as they are not tied to any specific country or government. This makes them a global currency that can be used anywhere in the world. Crypto invoicing is the process of creating invoices for goods and services that need to be paid in cryptocurrencies. This can be a convenient way to pay for items, as it is quick and easy to do.

Crypto Debit Card

Crypto debit cards are a type of debit card that allow customers to pay for items using cryptocurrencies. These cards work similarly to regular debit cards, except that they are linked to a cryptocurrency account rather than a bank account. This allows users to spend their cryptocurrencies without having to first convert them into a more commonly accepted form.


Some new projects are raising funds by selling DOT or KSM tokens in order to get a slot on the Kusama or Polkadot network.


Crowdfunding is a way for people to raise money from a lot of different sources. This can be done through different platforms, such as websites or apps.

Cross-chain Contract Calls

Cross-chain contract calls allow different blockchains to interact with each other, which allows information, cryptocurrencies or NFTs to move freely between them. This is done through the use of smart contracts, which act as intermediaries between the different blockchains.

Cross-Chain Communication

Cross-chain communication between blockchains means that different blockchains can verify data and transactions without the help of a centralized third-party. This is important because it means that different blockchains can communicate with each other without having to rely on a third party. This makes it possible for different blockchains to work together, which could lead to some interesting applications.


Cross-chain technology is used to improve the communication between different blockchain networks. It allows for the exchange of information and value between these networks, which can help to improve overall functionality and performance.

Cross-Border Trading

Cross-border trading in financial markets and trade finance represents the opportunity to conduct business with people from other countries using your own currency. This allows for easier and more efficient trade between parties, as well as reducing the risk of exchanging different currencies.

Cross Margin

Cross Margin, also known as "Spread Margin" is a margin method that utilizes the full amount of funds in the available balance to avoid liquidations. This margin method can be helpful in keeping your positions open, by using profits and losses from other positions to add margin to a losing one.

Credit Risk

The risk of losing money because a borrower cannot repay their loan is called crest risk.

Craig Wright

Craig Wright is a computer scientist who has claimed to be the inventor of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.

CPU Miner

Mining cryptocurrency using a central processing unit (CPU) is called CPU mining. This is because mining requires computing power, and CPUs are what computers use to perform calculations.


A correction is a pullback of an asset's price to adjust for over-valuation. Generally, a correction occurs after an asset experiences a significant price increase. The pullback must be at least 10% in order to correct the over-valuation.

Corporate Treasury

A treasury department is responsible for managing a company's liquidity, risk, and funds. They work to make sure the company's resources are aligned with its short- and long-term goals.

Core Wallet

A core crypto wallet is able to store the entire blockchain, rather than just a piece of it. This allows users to have a more complete and secure experience when using cryptocurrencies.


In blockchain technology, a coordinator is a program that helps nodes verify the validity of their copy of the ledger against specific transactions.

Contract for Difference (CFD)

A contract for difference (CFD) is an agreement between two parties in which the buyer agrees to pay the seller any price difference that might occur due to the shifting valuation of an asset.


The cypherpunk movement is about using cryptography and other privacy-focused technologies to achieve social and political progress.


Custody is a term used in the financial industry to describe an institution's legal ability to keep and protect its clients' financial assets from being stolen or lost.


A custodian is responsible for safely holding assets for an institution or individual. They may do this for a variety of purposes such as safeguarding, investing, or issuing.


Cryptocurrency businesses that store their customers’ funds are called custodial businesses. This is because they are responsible for holding onto the funds for the duration of the customer’s use of the service.

Curve AMO

Curve is a software that uses multiple cryptocurrencies to operate an automated market maker service. This service is focused on stablecoins, which are cryptocurrencies programmed to mimic other assets.

Currency Crisis

A currency crisis is a situation in which the value of a country's currency falls sharply and investors become wary of holding or investing in that country's assets. This can be a very dangerous situation for a country, as it can lead to a financial emergency in which the country may struggle to pay its bills or fund government programs.


Currency is a measure of value that is used to exchange goods or services.


A collection of Ethereum-based tokens that are not all the same.


Cryptology is the study of how to keep information secure. This includes both cryptography, which is the use of mathematical techniques to encode data, and cryptanalysis, which is the study of how to break those codes.


The unauthorized use of someone else's computer to mine cryptocurrency without their consent.


Cryptography is the practice of securing information from unauthorized access. This can be done through various methods, including but not limited to encryption and hashing. Cryptography is used in a variety of applications, including email, file storage, and secure communications.

Cryptographic Hash Function

Cryptographic hash functions take a variable-length input and produce a fixed-length output. This output is usually called the hash value, digest, or message digest. The function is designed so that it is difficult to find two different inputs that result in the same hash value. This makes it useful for creating digital signatures and verifying the integrity of data.

Cryptocurrency Pairs

Cryptocurrency pairs are used by exchanges to trade between different tokens.

Cryptocurrency Money Laundering

Cryptocurrency money laundering is a way for criminals to legitimize their money and make it harder to track. They do this by changing fiat currency into digital currency, and then routing it through many different pathways. This is done in an attempt to avoid any authorities who may be tracing the money.


Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that use cryptography to secure their transactions and to control the creation of new units. This makes them more secure and difficult to counterfeit than traditional currencies.


Daedalus Wallet

Daedalus Wallet is a program that lets you generate an unlimited number of keys from a single seed. This makes it a convenient option for keeping your cryptocurrencies safe.

DAO Summoning

To create or form a DAO is called DAO summoning. It is typically used when creating a new Moloch DAO, but it can also be used for any other type of DAO.

Dark Web

The darknet is a portion of the internet that can only be accessed with specific software, configurations, or authorizations. It is not indexed by search engines, so it can only be accessed by those who know where to look.


RenVM is a decentralized network of computers that provide their computing power and storage space to anyone who needs it, in return for compensation.

Data Privacy

Data privacy is the process of handling sensitive data in a secure way. This can include things such as protecting people's personal information, or making sure that confidential business information is kept safe. By ensuring data privacy, individuals and businesses can protect themselves from cyber-attacks, data breaches, and other online threats.

Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

A P2P exchange allows users to trade cryptocurrency without the need for an intermediary. This can be done by connecting buyers and sellers directly with each other. This removes the need for a third party, such as an exchange, to mediate the transaction. This can save users money on fees, and can also allow them to trade faster and more easily.

Decentralized Network

A decentralized network is a collection of various elements that work together without the need for a centralized power or server.

Decentralized Marketplace

A decentralized marketplace allows traders to trade with each other without any middlemen. This marketplace is based on blockchain technology, which makes it globally available. There is no need for intermediaries to make trades possible.

Decentralized Identifier (DID)

A decentralized identifier, or DID, is an ID that can be issued by an autonomous, independent, and decentralized platform. This platform acts as a proof of ownership of digital identity.

Decentralized Governance

Decentralized governance refers to the way that a platform's management is carried out in a fair and equitable way through its disintermediated network. This allows for blockchain networks and dApps to be run without any central authority, making them more democratic and secure.

Decentralized Database

A decentralized database is a storage solution that uses modern technologies to store data and files across multiple nodes. This delivers high security and unmatched availability, while being censorship-resistant.

Decentralized Currency

Decentralized currency refers to methods of transferring wealth or ownership without needing a third party. This can be done through bank-free methods, or other means of transferring wealth without a central authority.

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO)

A DAO is a type of organization that is based on computer-defined rules and blockchain-based smart contracts. It is governed by these rules and contracts, which allow it to be decentralized and autonomous.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)

A system for decentralized funding of projects that introduces a form of governance in the ICO process, allowing backers to vote on the return of their funds if certain conditions are met.

Decentralized Applications (DApps)

A decentralized application, or "dApp" for short, is an application that runs on a decentralized network. This means that there is no single point of failure, making it more secure and reliable. dApps are often used in conjunction with blockchain technology, which is also decentralized. This makes dApps a powerful tool for creating trustless systems that can't be controlled by any one party.


A system is decentralized when its nodes or actors work together in a distributed fashion to achieve a common goal.

Data Scraping

Web scraping is the process of extracting information from a website into a spreadsheet or local file on your computer. This can be done manually or through automated means using software.

Date of Launch

A term used for when a company will offer their tokens for sale to the public.

Day Trading

Day trading is the practice of buying and selling assets frequently in order to make a profit from the changes in their price during the day.

Dead Cat Bounce

A temporary increase in prices after a sustained decrease.

Decentralized API (dAPI)

dAPI services enable communication between decentralized applications and blockchain technology. This allows for greater interoperability and collaboration between decentralized applications. dAPI services are made possible by the API3 protocol.

Dead Coin

A cryptocurrency that is no longer in existence is called a "dead coin."

Death Cross

A death cross is an indicator used in technical analysis that is said to predict a big sell-off. It is created when the 50-day moving average falls below the 200-day moving average.

Decentralization Maximalism

Decentralization maximalism is a belief that decentralization is the best way to live, to the point where any form of regulation isn't necessary.

Decentralization Ratio

The Decentralization Ratio (DR) is a measure of how much of the collateral backing a stablecoin is held in a decentralized manner. This is calculated by dividing the value of the collateral that is held in a decentralized manner over the total stablecoin supply.

Desktop Wallet

A desktop wallet is a type of software wallet that allows you to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies without having to rely on a third party. This type of wallet is usually non-custodial, meaning you retain control of your private keys.

Derivatives Market

A public market for derivatives would allow people to trade in futures contracts and options based on other forms of cryptocurrency assets. This would create a more efficient and liquid market for these assets.


A security that is based on the value of an underlying asset.

Depth Chart

The graph shows the point at which the market is most likely to accept a transaction. This is based on the bids and asks that are placed by people looking to buy or sell a specific amount of a particular cryptocurrency.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack

A denial-of-service attack is a type of attack where someone tries to make a computer or network unavailable to its users. This can be done by flooding the system with so much data that it can't handle it, or by repeatedly trying to log in with incorrect information.


The process of removing an asset from a trading exchange is called delisting. This means that the asset is no longer available for purchase or sale on the exchange. There are a number of reasons why an asset might be delisted, including regulatory issues, low trading volume, or a change in the asset's characteristics.

Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPOS)

The Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work consensus algorithms are two common ways to achieve consensus in a blockchain network. However, there is another way that is gaining popularity called the Delegated Proof-of-Stake algorithm. With this algorithm, instead of every node in the network verifying transactions, a smaller number of nodes, called delegates, are chosen to do this work. These delegates are voted on by the network's users and are rewarded for their efforts. This approach has several advantages over the other two algorithms, including faster transaction verification times and lower energy consumption.


A falling or decreasing average price level in an economy.

DeFi Degens

The DeFi subculture is known for being associated with pump and dump schemes, which makes it disreputable. This corner of decentralized finance is in no way respectable and should be avoided altogether.

DeFi Aggregator

A DeFi aggregator is a site or app that pulls together all of the transactions happening on different DeFi platforms into one place. This makes it easy to see what's going on in the DeFi world and to compare different platforms.


This is a movement that encourages people to find alternatives to traditional, centralized financial services. This can include things like using local credit unions or other community-based organizations as opposed to large, corporate banks.

Deep Web

The deep web is a part of the internet that isn't accessible through regular search engines. This means that it's difficult to find information and websites that are hidden in this part of the internet. However, there are ways to access the deep web, and it can be a great resource for finding information and websites that you wouldn't be able to find otherwise.


The process of decrypting encrypted data back into a format that is readable by a user or machine.

Decentralized Stablecoin

Stablecoins that are decentralized are fully transparent and they don't have any third-party control. This means that there is no risk of losing your money or information. They are also non-custodial, meaning you don't have to worry about your coins being stolen or mishandled.

Decentralized Social Media

Decentralized social media is a social media platform that is based on blockchain technology. This means that the platform is decentralized, meaning there is no one central authority controlling it. Instead, it is run by the users themselves. This also means that the data on the platform is secure and cannot be tampered with.

Decentralized Payment Network

A decentralized payment network is a system where users, customers and vendors can exchange money without having to trust any third party to keep the network secure and operational. This allows for a more secure and efficient way of exchanging money without all of the added fees that are typically associated with using a third party.

Deterministic Wallet

A type of cryptocurrency wallet in which keys and addresses are generated from a single seed. This makes it more secure as you only need to remember one set of information.

Dex Aggregator

Dex aggregators are a type of blockchain-based service that allow users to benefit from a variety of financial tools in a single interface. This often provides better liquidity and prices on different crypto pairs.

Dharma Protocol

An open-source stack for building debt markets on Ethereum.

Diamond Hands

Diamond Hands refers to people who hold their coins even if their portfolio drops in value by more than 20%. They believe that the long-term potential of these coins is worth more than the short-term volatility.

Distributed Consensus

A collective agreement is an agreement reached among nodes in a network.

Distributed Ledger

Distributed ledgers are a way of storing data across a network of different computers. This makes the data more secure, because if one computer is hacked, the rest of the network still has the data. Distributed ledgers can also be used without cryptocurrencies, and may be private or permissioned.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

An attempt by someone to interfere with the normal operation of an application, server, or network by sending it a lot of traffic.


Discord is an online communication tool designed specifically for gamers. It enables gaming communities to connect with each other and communicate through voice and text chat.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A data structure that is often used for data modelling and is increasingly being used in cryptocurrencies is blockchain. This is a way of structuring data that allows for consensus-based decision making.


A dip is a market downturn that can be short or protracted.


Cryptocurrency "candles" are the red or green lines on graphs that show cryptocurrency market data.

Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)

DSA is a type of digital signature algorithm that uses public key cryptography to create signatures.

Digital Signature

A method for proving the authenticity of a digital communication is by using a digital signature. A digital signature is a cryptographic hash of the message that is encrypted with the sender's private key. The recipient can decrypt the hash with the sender's public key to verify that the message was not altered in transit.

Digital Identity

It explains that identification is when a person or entity uses information to identify themselves to a computer or network.

Digital Currency

A digital currency is a type of currency that only exists in a digital form, as opposed to traditional physical currencies.


The difficulty of validating a new block on a blockchain is a measure of how hard it is to ensure that the block is legitimate.


Digital technologies are tools that use electronic means to generate, store, or process data.

Digital Dollar

The term "digital dollar" refers to a possible digital currency that could be issued by the US central bank.

Digital Art

Digital art is artwork that is made with the help of digital technology. This can include anything from images and videos to websites and apps.

Digital Asset

Digital assets represent something of value in a digital form.

Digital Asset Custodian

A digital asset custodian is responsible for looking after digital assets on behalf of an investor or client. This can include safeguarding, handling and administering the assets in a secure and efficient manner.

Digital Asset Ecosystem

The term "digital asset ecosystem" refers to everything involved in the crypto space, from non-fungible tokens (NFTs) to futures. This term sums up all the facilities offered and elements associated with the crypto universe.

Digital Barter Economy

A digital barter economy eliminates the weaknesses of traditional bartering. With a digital barter economy, it is easier to trade physical and virtual items anywhere in the world. This makes it a more efficient way to trade goods and services.

Digital Commodity

A digital commodity is something that exists online, as opposed to in the physical world.

DYCO (Dynamic Coin Offering)

DYCO is a new crowdfunding model that uses tokens backed by USD. This makes it more reliable and secure than other models, which often have no guarantees.

Dusting Attack

A technique used to try and learn the identity of a person who owns a cryptocurrency wallet, which can then be used in future phishing scams.

Dust Transactions

Small amounts of Bitcoin in a wallet can be worth less than the cost of a transaction fee.


A market sell-off that happens when a lot of a particular cryptocurrency is sold in a short amount of time.


A sudden sell-off of digital assets occurred yesterday, leaving many people wondering what caused it and what this could mean for the future of digital currencies. While the reasons for the sell-off are still unknown, some experts are speculating that it could be a sign of a larger problem in the digital asset market.

Dual-Token Economy/Model (Two-Token Economy)

In the blockchain world, a dual-token economy refers to a project that has two tokens. One of these is used for utility within the network, while the other one is used as security to raise funds for the crypto project.


The biggest decrease in the value of an investment or fund over a period of time is called the "maximum reduction."

dPoSec (Distributed Proof of Security)

dPoSec is a consensus mechanism that ensures the blockchain network continues to operate even if a third of the nodes are compromised. It addresses the key challenges faced by the existing distributed network of nodes and validators.

Double Spending

The potential for a digital currency to be spent twice is worrying because it could mean people would lose trust in the currency. If people think that the currency might not be worth anything, they will be less likely to use it. This could have a negative effect on the economy.

Double Spend Attack

A double-spend attack is a practice in the world of digital currencies where a user can spend the same cryptocurrency more than once. This can be done by spending the currency on two different transactions, or by splitting a single transaction into multiple smaller ones.


DotSama is a new term used to describe the ecosystems of Kusama and Polkadot in just one word.

Dorian Nakamoto

Some believe that Dorian Nakamoto is a Japanese-American physicist who is the creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.


Bitcoin is a valuable cryptocurrency, but its value is just a small part of the larger cryptocurrency market.


Cryptocurrency is held by people with a moderate amount of it.


Documentation is a part of token economies that stores all the details of an asset on the blockchain. This includes information about the asset, as well as who owns it and how it can be used.


Diversification is a way to minimize risk by investing in a variety of assets instead of just one. By doing this, you reduce the chance that you will lose all your money if one of your investments fails.

Distributed Network

A network that is not centralized, instead relying on multiple sources for data and applications.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)

A blockchain is a database that can be accessed by multiple participants, in multiple locations. It is the foundation for blockchains.


The acronym of Do Your Own Research is encouraging investors to complete their own due diligence into a project before investing. This will help them make a more informed decision about whether or not to invest.


Economic Utility

The total satisfaction that a person can get from consuming a good or service is called economic utility.


Tokens designed for use on the Ethereum platform. These tokens have a specific purpose and can be used only on the Ethereum network.


ERC-223 is a token standard that allows users to securely transfer tokens to a digital wallet. This is done through the use of smart contracts, which makes the whole process more secure.


ERC-1155 is a new digital token standard that offers more security than older standards. It can be used to create both fungible and non-fungible assets on the Ethereum network.

Erasure Encoding

Erasure coding is a way to store data that is broken up into segments, expanded, and encoded with extra information to help keep it safe.


Equity is basically the money that would be returned to a company's shareholders if the company went bankrupt and had to liquidate all of its assets. This money would be used to pay off the company's debts.


A single run of the training dataset through the algorithm is called an epoch in machine learning.

Enterprise Ethereum Alliance (EEA)

The Ethereum Enterprise Alliance (EEA) is a group of organizations and companies that are working together to further develop the Ethereum network. This includes developing standards, promoting collaboration and innovation, and education.

Enterprise Blockchain

Enterprise blockchain is a way of using distributed ledger technology for business purposes other than speculation. It is tailored to the needs of businesses, and can be either private or public.


Encryption is a way to protect information by turning it into code.


The rate at which new coins are created and released.

Email Spoofing

Email spoofing is when someone tricks another person into thinking that a message came from a different person.

EMA (Exponential Moving Average)

The exponential moving average (EMA) is a technical indicator that helps to highlight the recent price changes and data points of an asset, stock or cryptocurrency while keeping older chart observations intact.

Elliott Waves

The Elliott Wave Theory is a trading tool that helps traders predict future stock and crypto prices. It uses patterns of investor behavior to make these predictions.


When people want to explain something complex in a way that’s easy to understand, they might say “explain it like I’m five.” This is what we need when it comes to cryptography — a way to make the concepts understandable for everyone.

Effective Proof-of-Stake

Proof-of-Stake is a consensus mechanism that aims to balance security and decentralization. With Proof-of-Stake, instead of relying on miners to verify transactions and create new blocks, the responsibility of verification is given to those who hold Harmony tokens. This helps to secure the network by ensuring that those who have a financial stake in its success are also responsible for its upkeep. It also contributes to decentralization by giving all token holders an equal say in the network’s governance.

Edge Nodes

An edge node is a computer that connects to other nodes in order to allow users to access the network.


A token standard for Ethereum tokens that are not fungible.


ERC-777 is a token standard that allows for a new way to interact with a token contract while still being backward compatible. This standard was spun out from ERC-20 in order to enable more flexibility and engagement with tokens.


ERC-827 is a new ETH token standard that improves on the existing ERC 20 token standard. It addresses the limitations of ERC 20 when it comes to things like calls in transfers and approvals. This makes it a more efficient and practical option for developers who want to use ETH tokens in their projects.


ERC-884 allows for the creation of tradable tokens that represent shares in a Delaware corporation. This makes it easier for people to invest in companies and to track their shares.

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF)

A security that represents a basket of assets such as stocks, bonds, and cryptocurrencies, but can be traded like a single stock.

Exit Scam

An exit scam is a type of fraud where a project disappears or shuts down after accumulating a lot of investors' money. In other industries, this event happens when a business stops shipping orders even if it is still receiving payment for the new ones.


There are businesses that allow customers to trade different cryptocurrencies for fiat money or other cryptocurrencies. This can be a convenient way to exchange different types of currency and allows people to take advantage of changing prices.

Event Triggers

When a transaction is mined, smart contracts can emit events and write logs to the blockchain. This can be used by the frontend to process the information.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a Turing complete virtual machine that enables execution of code exactly as intended. It is the runtime environment for every smart contract on the Ethereum blockchain. Every Ethereum node runs on the EVM to maintain consensus across the blockchain.

Ethereum Transaction

Ethereum transactions are instructions that allow you to update the state of the Ethereum network. These instructions are cryptographically signed, meaning that they can only be executed if the person sending the transaction is the owner of the funds being transferred.

Ethereum Request For Comment (ERC)

The Ethereum Request for Comment (ERC) is a protocol that allows developers to introduce new improvements to the network.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP)

Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIPs) describe standards for the Ethereum platform, including things like the core protocol specifications, client APIs, and contract standards.


The type of payment used on the Ethereum-based distribution application platform.


Ethash is the algorithm used to mine Ethereum and other ETH-based cryptocurrencies. It is a memory-hard algorithm that requires a lot of RAM to mine. This makes it difficult for small-scale miners to participate in the network.


E-sports is a competitive activity that consists of playing digital video games against others in order to win prizes. There are many different types of e-sports games, and some can even be played solo. The games can be very challenging and exciting, providing a great experience for players.


A financial instrument where a third party holds assets or cash while a buyer and seller complete a deal.


ERC-948 is a new Ethereum protocol that allows for subscription-based transactions between businesses and customers. This protocol makes it easier for businesses to connect with customers and allows for more secure and transparent subscription payments.


Falling Knife


Falling Wedge

Falling wedges are a type of triangle pattern that has a distinct downward slope and is typically seen as a bullish sign. In contrast, symmetrical triangles have no discernible slope and no bias.

Fan Token

A fan token is a cryptocurrency that is issued by a specific sports team. It allows the holders to participate in the governing activities and obtain exclusive rewards & discounts.

FATF Travel Rule

The FATF Travel Rule requires virtual asset service providers to share information about certain large transactions.


Rewards systems for completing tasks on websites and apps are commonly known as "cryptocurrency." They usually involve giving users a set amount of cryptocurrency for completing a task, such as filling out a survey.

Fee Tiers

Crypto exchanges often have different fee tiers which dictate the amount charged for investors when they deposit or withdraw money and execute trades. Generally, the higher the tier, the more expensive it is to use the exchange.


Fiat currency is a type of currency that is "legal tender" and backed by a central government. It can take the form of physical cash, or it can be represented electronically, such as with bank credit.

Flash Crash

A flash crash is a market condition where the price of an asset falls very rapidly within a very brief time interval.

Flash Loan

A flash loan is a type of loan in which the borrower and lender are the same person. The borrower receives a specific quantity of liquidity and repays it in the same transaction or block.


A person who owns a small amount of cryptocurrency.

First-Mover Advantage (FMA)

The first-mover advantage is when a company launches an innovative product or service that provides them with a head-start. They create brand loyalty and penetrate markets before their future competitors can.

First In, First Out

FIFO is an inventory method that specifies your cost-basis when calculating your taxes. This means that the items you bought first are the ones you sell first, and the IRS uses this information to figure out how much tax you owe on your profits.

Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre (FINTRAC)

FINTRAC is a Canadian government agency that collects and analyzes financial transactions in order to combat money laundering and terrorist financing.

Financial Crime Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

FinCEN is a bureau of the United States Treasury that deals with financial crimes.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an organization that helps set global standards to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing. This is done through measures such as developing policies and recommendations, providing guidance to countries, and cooperating with other organizations.

Field Programmable Gate Array

FPGAs are special types of integrated circuits that allow you to reprogram them to your own specific needs after they have been manufactured. This makes them a very versatile option for a wide range of applications.

Fibonacci Retracement Level

The Fibonacci retracement method is a technique used to identify the support and resistance levels of an asset or stock. The method uses a set of key numbers called Fibonacci ratios, which are derived from the Fibonacci sequence. The ratios are used to identify potential areas where the price of the asset may reverse direction.

Fiat-Pegged Cryptocurrency

A digital asset that is linked to a government or bank-issued currency.

Fiat On-Ramp

A fiat-on ramp is a way to get cryptocurrency from regular money. This is done by exchanging the two types of currency at a predetermined rate. This allows people to invest in digital currencies without first having to go through the process of buying traditional cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin or Ethereum.

Flash Loan Attack

Flash loan attacks are when someone exploits a smart contract in order to get a quick loan. This can be done by taking advantage of a vulnerability in the code, or by convincing the contract's owner to give them a loan. Malicious actors can use these attacks to get large sums of money quickly, and then disappear before the loan needs to be repaid.

Flash Loans

Flash loans are a type of lending that is used in decentralized finance. This type of lending does not require any collateral, which makes it a more risky option.


Bitcoin has been the dominant cryptocurrency for a long time now, but there is speculation that Ethereum's market cap could overtake Bitcoin's in the near future. Ethereum is a newer cryptocurrency, but it has been growing in popularity and has a lot of potential. If Ethereum's market cap does overtake Bitcoin's, it could signal a shift in the cryptocurrency market and could lead to even more growth for Ethereum.


An investment strategy where you buy something with the goal of reselling for a profit later, usually in a short period of time. This can be done by buying low and selling high, or through other means such as buying items that are likely to go out of style soon and reselling them at a higher price.


FOMO is an acronym that stands for "Fear of Missing Out." This term is used to describe the feeling of anxiety or pressure that someone may feel when they believe that they are missing out on something important.

Fork (Blockchain)

Forks happen when two blockchains are created from a single one. This happens when there is a disagreement about the rules of the blockchain, or when someone wants to create a new blockchain with different rules. Usually, the original blockchain continues to run while the new one is created.

Fork (Software)

When a new program is created from scratch, based on code from an open source software.

Fractional Stablecoins

A fractional stablecoin is one that is backed in two ways: collaterally-backed and algorithmically modified. This means that the coin is stabilized by both the value of the collateral and by the modifications to the algorithm.


In cryptocurrency, fungibility means that a coin or token can be replaced by any other identical coin or token. This is important because it ensures that each coin has the same value as any other coin, and it also makes it easier for people to use and trade cryptocurrencies.


A futures contract is an agreement between two people to buy or sell a particular commodity or asset at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.

Funding Payments

Funding payments are made on a periodic basis between traders in order to reduce the discrepancy between the perpetual market price and the spot market price.

Fundamental Analysis (FA)

Performing fundamental analysis is a way of researching an asset's underlying value. This is done by looking at factors such as the technology, team and growth prospects of the company. People who use this approach to investing are often called "value investors."

Fully Homomorphic Encryption

Fully homomorphic encryption is a type of scheme where one can perform arbitrary computations on encrypted data and generate the same results as when performing those computations on the plaintext. This means that you can keep your data safe from prying eyes, while still being able to access it and use it as normal.

Fully Diluted Value (FDV)

FDV is the total value of a cryptocurrency if the entire supply of tokens were in circulation.

Full Node

Nodes that download a blockchain’s entire history in order to observe and enforce its rules are called miners.


A person who is spreading fear, uncertainty, and doubt.


FUD is a strategy to influence perception of certain cryptocurrencies or the cryptocurrency market in general by spreading negative, misleading or false information.

Front Running

When you place a transaction in a queue before anyone else, you are front running that transaction.

Fraud Proof

A fraud proof is a way to create trust in a decentralized environment. This is done by using Optimistic Rollups (ORs), which are sidechains that aim to reduce the costs and latency that dApps might encounter on a blockchain platform.



Gains refer to an increase in value or profit. This could be from selling a product for more than it was bought for, earning more money through investments, or any other way of increasing wealth.

Game Channels

Game channels are a new technology that allows for fast gameplay by removing the wait time for block confirmations. Games and dApps can run off-chain securely and in near real-time using game channels.

Game Theory

Game theory is a way of understanding how people and groups will respond to certain actions in an interactive setting. It helps to create a simplified environment where researchers can model different outcomes.


GameFi, or play-to-earn games, are a new type of game that combines the gaming and cryptocurrency industries. These games are designed so that players have control over their in-game assets and can use them to generate revenue.


A unit of measuring the computational effort required to conduct transactions or smart contracts on the Ethereum platform. The "fuel" used by the Ethereum network. This is determined by the Gas Limit and Gas Price.

Gas Limit

The maximum amount of gas that a user is willing to spend on a transaction is known as the gas limit.

Gas Price

The price you are willing to pay for a transaction on the Ethereum platform is known as the "gas price."

Gas Station Networks (GSN)

Gas Station Networks (GSN) allows you to build decentralized applications (dApps) which make payments for transactions without users needing to hold Ether or ETH. This makes the onboarding process easier and improves user acquisition and experience.

Gavin Wood

Gavin Wood is a co-founder of Parity Technologies and one of the founders of Ethereum. He is passionate about developing new technologies and building strong communities around them.


Geth is a command line interface that allows users to mine Ethereum and execute smart contracts. It's based on the Go language, which makes it easy to use for developers.


Gem is a term for low-cap coins that have immense potential or are grossly undervalued. These coins may be less known, but they offer a lot of potential for growth. Investors who are looking to get in on the ground floor of some of the most promising coins should take a look at gems.

Genesis Block

The first block of data that is processed and validated to form a new blockchain. This block is often referred to as block 0 or block 1.

Geotagged NFT

NFTs that are geotagged feature 3D versions of street art alongside the corresponding geo-location. They allow art aficionados to own both the virtual and physical artwork without the need to remove the actual infrastructure it was originally painted on.


This is the denomination used when calculating the cost of gas in transactions that use Ether.


GitHub is a code hosting platform that allows developers to collaborate on various projects. It's one of the most popular code hosting platforms around.

Goguen Phase

The Goguen phase of Cardano will allow the development of smart contracts and DApps. This will enable developers to create innovative applications that can change the world.

Gold-Backed Cryptocurrency

Gold-backed coins are created when a company or organization decides to back their currency with gold. In order to do this, they will need to hold a certain amount of gold in reserve, which can be verified by an external auditor. This guarantees that each coin or token has a value based on the current market price of gold.

Golden Cross

A golden cross is an indicator that predicts a rise in the price of an asset or stock. It is formed when the 50-day moving average crosses above the 200-day moving average.

Google Authenticator

Google Authenticator is a verification system that uses a code generated on your mobile phone to verify your identity. The code is time-based, meaning it changes after a certain amount of time has passed. This system is used to protect your account from unauthorized access.


Governance in the world of cryptocurrencies refers to the people or organizations that have decision-making powers regarding the project. This can include anything from choosing new team members to changing the codebase.

Governance Token

Governance tokens are used to vote on decisions that have an impact on an ecosystem. These tokens allow for a more democratic process, giving everyone a say in how the system is run. This can be important in cases where there are many different stakeholders with a vested interest in the ecosystem.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU)

A graphics card is a computer chip that creates 3D images on a computer. They have turned out to be efficient for mining cryptocurrencies.

Gray Swan Event

Gray swans are significant events that could be predicted, but their likelihood is low.

Greater Fool Theory

The greater fool theory is a financial idea that suggests that there's always somebody who is willing to buy an overvalued asset from you. This person is the greater fool, since they're going to lose money when the asset eventually becomes worth less than they paid for it.

Green Candle

A green candle means that the price closed higher than it opened. This indicates that the market was bullish overall at the time of trading. A wide body with a small tail on top means that the bullish movement was strong.

Group Mining

Group mining is when multiple people work together to mine Bitcoin. This is different than solo mining, where a person works by themselves. Group mining can be more efficient because it allows people to share resources and information.


Hal Finney

Hal Finney was a computer scientist and early adopter of Bitcoin. He worked with Satoshi Nakamoto to develop the cryptocurrency and was one of the first people to mine it. Finney was also a strong advocate for the technology, writing articles and speaking about its potential.


Halving the rewards for each block mined will cause miners to be less incentivized to mine, which could lead to a decrease in the security of the blockchain.

Hard Cap

A hard cap is a maximum limit on the number of a digital asset that can be created.

Hedge Contract

A hedge contract is a type of insurance policy that investors use to protect themselves from the possibility of financial losses. A hedge is typically created to shield against price fluctuations in the market.

Hard Fork (Blockchain)

A hard fork is a type of protocol change that makes all previously invalid transactions valid, and invalidates all previously valid transactions.

Hard Fork Combinator

A hard fork combinator is a tool that can be used to combine different protocols on the Cardano blockchain after a hard fork has taken place.

Hard Peg

A hard peg is an exchange rate policy where a currency is set at a fixed rate against another currency. This means that the value of the two currencies will always be the same, and that they can't fluctuate in value against each other. Hard pegs are often used to stabilize economies, or to maintain a certain level of competitiveness for a country's exports.

Hardware Security Module

A hardware security module is a device that helps protect your digital keys and encryption data. It does this by securely storing and managing these items. This makes it difficult for unauthorized individuals to access them, which in turn enhances the security of your data.

Hardware Wallet

A hardware wallet is a special type of wallet that is used to store cryptocurrencies. Hardware wallets usually look like USB sticks, and they are used to store cryptocurrencies because they are very secure.


A hash is an output result of a hashing algorithm, which creates a unique, fixed-length string to encrypt and secure a certain selection of arbitrary data.

Hash Function

A hashing function is a function which takes an input of any size and produces an output of a fixed size. This is done through a process of mathematical manipulation, and the result is called a hash. Hashing functions are used in cryptography to create message digests, or hashes, of data. These hashes are used to verify the integrity of data, as well as to ensure that messages have not been tampered with.

Hash Power / Hash Rate

The amount of computing power being consumed by the network to continuously operate is called a "bit".

Hashed Timelock Contract (HTLC)

A hashed timelock contract (HTLC) is an agreement between two parties that uses cryptography to reduce the risk of something going wrong. This type of contract requires no trust between users and offers special features that can help reduce risk.

Hashgraph Consensus Mechanism

The hashgraph consensus is a more advanced and updated version of the technology that enables consensus mechanisms.

Hidden Cap

A hidden cap is an unknown limit to the amount of money a team elects to receive from investors in its initial coin offering (ICO). The purpose of a hidden cap is to create a more level playing field, by letting smaller investors put in money without the large investors understanding the total cap and adjusting their investment amount as a result.

Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet (HD Wallet)

A Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) protocol wallet can create multiple wallets using a single master seed. This is done by creating 12 mnemonic phrases, which act as your passwords.


A type of investment strategy where an investor holds an investment for a long period of time, regardless of any changes in the price or markets. The term "HODL" first became famous due to a typo made in a Bitcoin forum, and the term is now commonly expanded to stand for "Hold On for Dear Life."


Honeyminer is a program that allows users to mine for cryptocurrencies on their devices. It is available for download on a variety of platforms.

Hostage Byte Attack

A Hostage Byte Attack is a DDoS attack against a user that stored its data on a malicious storage node and is asked to pay ransom to retrieve its data.

Hosted Wallet

A wallet that is managed by a third-party service.

Hot Storage

Cryptocurrencies can be stored online in a way that allows for quick access, this is known as hot storage. Alternatively, cryptocurrencies can be stored offline in what is known as cold storage, which requires a bit more time to access funds.

Hot Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet for storage of cryptoassets, as opposed to an offline, cold wallet with cold storage. *See Cold Wallet.

Howey Test

A test is used to determine if an asset is a security. This test looks at certain factors to see if the asset meets the definition of a security.

Hyperledger (Hyperledger Foundation)

Hyperledger is a collaborative project of open source blockchains and related tools started by the Linux Foundation in 2015. Hyperledger supports the development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

Huobi BTC (HBTC)

Huobi has launched its own Bitcoin-pegged token, HBTC. This standard ERC-20 token is pegged to BTC on a 1:1 ratio and can be used for trading, investment, and other purposes.

Hybrid PoW/PoS

A hybrid PoW/PoS allows for both proof-of-stake and proof-of-work as consensus distribution algorithms on the network. This approach aims to bring together the security of PoW consensus and the governance and energy efficiency of PoS. This could be a more secure way to run a blockchain network, as it would have the benefits of both algorithms.


In an economy, hyperinflation is when prices for goods and services grow rapidly and out of control. This happens when there is a shortage of resources, such as gas or food, and the demand for these items rises while their availability decreases.



A property that is unable to be changed, especially over time, is known as an immutable property.

Initial Token Offering (ITO)

ITOs are similar to initial coin offerings, but they have more of a focus on offering tokens that have intrinsic utility in the form of software or usage in an ecosystem. This makes them a more attractive investment opportunity for potential token buyers, as they can be sure that the tokens will have a use and will not just be speculative investments.

Initial Stake Pool Offering (ISPO)

The Initial Stake Pool Offering (ISPO) is a new way of raising money for crypto projects that is exclusive to the Cardano ecosystem. It is more inclusive, decentralized, equitable, and secure than other fundraising models.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

An IPO is when a company offers shares of its stock to the public for the first time. This can be a major event for a company, as it can bring in a lot of new money that can be used to help the business grow. It can also be risky, as the stock may not sell as well as hoped or the company may have trouble meeting its financial obligations after going public.

Initial NFT Offering (INO)

Crypto crowdfunding is a way for projects to raise money by issuing unique digital assets called non-fungible tokens, or NFTs. These tokens can be bought and sold on a dedicated launchpad, which helps to connect backers with projects they want to support. This allows projects to raise the funds they need without having to give away any ownership of their company or project.

Initial Game Offering (IGO)

IGOs are a way for people to invest in gaming projects at an early stage, in the hopes of earning a large return on investment after the game is released.

Initial Farm Offering (IFO)

IFO is a way for DeFi projects to raise money by allowing people to farm their tokens. This is done by using a decentralized exchange to trade the tokens for something else, like bitcoin. This can be a great way for projects to get started, as it doesn't require them to give up any equity.

Initial Exchange Offering

Cryptocurrency startups can raise capital by issuing their own cryptocurrency tokens and selling them through an exchange. This is sometimes called an "initial coin offering" or "ICO".

Initial Dex Offering (IDO)

An initial dex offering (IDX) is a way to raise money through a cryptocurrency exchange instead of an initial coin offering (ICO).

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

An ICO, or Initial Coin Offering, is a type of crowdfunding where people can invest in early-stage companies by buying cryptocurrencies. This is a great way for young companies to raise money and build a community of supporters.

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO)

A new way of launching a project that focuses on people contributing skills to a platform instead of money.


Inflation is when prices go up and the value of money goes down. This happens when there is too much money in the economy and not enough goods to buy with it. This makes prices go up because people are bidding for a limited amount of things

Infinite Mint Attack

An infinite mint attack is when someone or something creates an absurd amount of tokens in a given protocol. This can be very harmful to the network and its users, as it can devalue the tokens already in circulation.

Infinite Approval

Pre-approving smart contracts to enable the platform to spend any amount of your coins in a secure and trustless way.

In-the-Money / Out-of-the-Money

An in-the-money option is an option that is worth more than the price at which it was bought. This means that the option has a positive intrinsic value. An out-of-the-money option is an option that is worth less than the price at which it was bought. This means that the option has a negative intrinsic value.

Impermanent Loss

Losses that are temporary happen when a liquidity provider has a sudden loss of funds due to the volatility of a trading pair.

Instant Settlement Network Layer

Instant settlement network allows participants to exchange digital assets quickly and easily from anywhere in the world. This network makes it easy for people to buy and sell assets without having to wait for a long settlement process.

Input-Output Hong Kong (IOHK)

IOHK is a company that provides blockchain infrastructure to research and engineering companies. It was launched in 2015 by Charles Hoskinson. The goal of IOHK is to help these companies create new applications and products using blockchain technology.

Insider Trading

Insider trading is when someone buys or sells stocks while knowing private information about that stock.


Coin distributions that occur soon after a coin's launch are often called "airdrops." This is because a large portion of the coin's total supply is distributed to investors, giving them a "drop" of tokens. Airdrops are often used to reward early investors and to increase the coin's visibility and popularity.

Institutional Investor

An institutional investor is a company or organization that buys and sells stocks and other investments on behalf of its clients. This can include individual investors, as well as other organizations.


When you put money into a financial scheme with the intent of making a gain, this is called investing.

Intrinsic Value

An asset's intrinsic value is determined by its actual worth, rather than its current price. This means that the intrinsic value takes into account things like the asset's future earnings and dividends, as well as its current market value. Intrinsic value is a complex calculation, but it's important to understand it if you're looking to invest in assets.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

The InterPlatery File System is a decentralized system for storing and accessing files, as well as websites and applications. This system relies on content addressing rather than location to find stored files.


Blockchain interoperability refers to the ability to access and share data across multiple blockchains. This allows for different blockchain networks to communicate with each other, facilitating the transfer of assets and information between them. This technology has the potential to revolutionize the way businesses operate by enabling them to easily connect with different blockchain networks.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)

ISPs are organizations that provide people with access to the internet. They may offer different services, speeds, and prices depending on the customer's needs.

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of interconnected devices, sensors and software that can collect and share data with each other in real-time.

Internet Memes

A meme is an image, video or text that is copied and spread rapidly on the internet. They are typically humorous but can also be critical.

Internet Layer

The internet layer is the third layer of the TCP/IP model and it is responsible for transporting packets between networks.

Internal Transaction

An internal transaction is a message that is sent when you interact with a contract. This can include things like transferring Ether, or creating a new contract.


A go-between is someone who helps two or more people to communicate and come to agreements. They may also help to carry out directives or instructions.

Interest Rates

A time-dependent charge or return is made in proportion to the amount of money deposited, borrowed, or lent. This means that the more money you put in, the more you get back.

Intercontinental Exchange (ICE)

The Intercontinental Exchange is a company founded in 2000 that operates global exchanges and clearing houses.

Intellectual Property (IP)

Intellectual property is a type of property that can be legally protected from being copied or stolen. This includes intangible creations that result from human thinking, such as a book, song, design, business method, or software.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

An IDE is a program that helps you develop applications. It integrates many different development tools into a single graphical user interface. This makes it easier for you to create apps.

Insurance Fund

An insurance fund is used in order to cover any unexpected losses from leveraged trading. This means that if a trader experiences significant losses and needs to liquidate their positions, the fund will help to prevent them from going bankrupt.

Isolated Margin

Isolated margin mode is useful for traders who want to take speculative positions, and where there is a probable chance of their speculation turning out to be incorrect. In this mode, if the trader's speculation goes wrong, they will only lose their isolated margin balance, instead of their entire margin balance. This can be seen as a downside, as it limits the trader's exposure to one position in a particular market.

Investment Vehicles (Crypto-tied)

There are many different types of investment vehicles that people can use to grow their money. Some examples include stocks, bonds, and real estate. Each one has its own unique risks and rewards, so it's important for investors to do their research before deciding which ones to put their money into.


An IOU is a document stating that one party owes another party money. This debt can be for any reason, such as the purchase of goods or services. IOUs can be helpful in cases where both parties want to keep track of the debt and its repayment.

IP Address

An IP address is a unique number that is assigned to a device that is connected to the internet or a local network.



The consensus mechanism used by the Fantom blockchain is unique in that it allows for both on-chain and off-chain voting. This means that users can vote on important decisions both on the blockchain and off of it, which helps to ensure that the network remains secure and efficient. Additionally, Fantom's consensus mechanism is designed to be resistant to forks, meaning that the network will always come to a consensus on the correct course of action.


A car that many crypto enthusiasts aspire to buy is called a "moon car." This type of car becomes very desirable when the digital assets they own "moon" in value.

Large Cap

Large cap projects and organizations are those that have a market capitalization of $10 billion or more. They are typically well-established and have a solid track record.

Laser Eyes

The Laser Eyes meme is a popular way for Bitcoiners to try and push the price of BTC to new highs. The hashtag #LaserRayUntil100 was started in February 2021 as a way to help achieve this goal.

Law of Accelerating Returns

The Law of Accelerating Returns is a hypothesis that suggests that technologies tend to progress in an exponential fashion. This means that they become more advanced at a faster and faster rate over time.

Layer 0

Layer 0 is a network that supports the blockchain. It consists of protocols, connections, hardware, miners, and everything else that is needed for the blockchain to function.

Layer 2

Layer 2 refers to a scaling solution that allows for high throughput of transactions while still retaining the security of the underlying blockchain on which it is based.

Layer-1 Blockchain

A layer-1 blockchain is a set of solutions that improve the base protocol itself, making it more efficient and user-friendly. This can include features such as faster transactions, increased security, and easier user interfaces. By building on top of the base protocol, layer-1 blockchains can create a more robust and versatile platform for users and developers alike.


A permanent and unchangeable record of financial transactions, only updated with new transactions.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell

Tools that enable traders to automatically buy or sell cryptocurrencies when a certain price target is reached. This allows traders to set automatic buy and sell points, which takes the emotion out of trading and can help them make more informed decisions.


Money that a trader borrows from a brokerage, which allows them to have a greater exposure to a position than they would have if they were only using their own money.

Leveraged Tokens

Cryptocurrencies can offer leveraged positions which will multiply your earnings and losses.


Libp2p is a decentralized networking protocol that enables peer-to-peer communication. This allows for applications and services to be built on top of the protocol, without the need for a central authority. This makes it ideal for use in decentralized systems.

Light Node

Light nodes are wallets that typically don't store the entire blockchain, but instead connect to full nodes to validate information.

Lightning Network

The Lightning Network is a protocol that is designed to speed up the processing of Bitcoin transactions. It allows transactions to be processed more quickly, which helps to solve the scalability problem that Bitcoin faces.

Limit Order

A limit order is a type of order to purchase or sell a security at a specified price or better. This means that the order will only be filled if the price is met or bettered. Limit orders are beneficial because they allow investors to get the best possible price for their security.

LINK (Chainlink)

LINK is a token that is used to pay Chainlink node operators. This allows for reliable and secure decentralized connectivity between applications and services.

Liquid Market

A liquid market is one where there are a lot of buyers and sellers, and where trades can be executed easily and cheaply.

Liquid Staking (Fantom)

A staking mechanism by the Fantom blockchain that allows you to earn interest by keeping your tokens locked away for a longer duration.


Liquidation is the process of converting an asset or cryptocurrency into fiat currency, or its equivalent. This can be done through a variety of means, such as selling off the asset or exchanging it for cash. It is often used as a last resort for companies or individuals who are struggling to pay their debts.


The liquidity of a cryptocurrency is how easily it can be bought and sold without significantly impacting the overall market price. This means that there is a large supply and demand for the currency, which allows buyers and sellers to trade it without causing large price swings. Liquidity is an important factor to consider when investing in cryptocurrencies, as it affects how easy it is to buy and sell them.

Liquidity Bootstrapping Pool (LBP)

A liquidity bootstrapping pool is a contract that creates and manages a core pool of tokens to be used on an exchange. This allows for new and smaller exchanges to get started without having to worry about liquidity issues.

Liquidity Mining

Liquidity mining is a way for people to supply cryptocurrencies into liquidity pools in order to earn fees and tokens based on their share of the total pool liquidity.

Liquidity Pool

Liquidity pools are a type of crypto asset that is used to make it easier to trade different cryptocurrencies on decentralized exchanges.

Liquidity Provider Tokens (LP Tokens)

Liquidity provider tokens (LP) are tokens issued to individuals or organizations that provide liquidity on a decentralized exchange (DEX). LP tokens are used to pay for services provided by liquidity providers on DEXs that run on automated market maker (AMM) protocols.


A guarantee that a system will continue to provide data, and that no centralized authority can shut down its services. This means that the system is resilient and reliable, and will not go offline no matter what.

Loan-to-value (LTV)

The loan-to-value ratio is the assessment of the risk involved in approving a loan. It is the ratio of the loan's value to the value of the collateral.

Location Swap

Location swap is a method that allows you to change the location of a token without affecting any other attributes.


Cryptocurrency speculation is when someone buys a cryptocurrency with the expectation of selling it at a higher price for profit later.


The smallest denomination of ADA is called Lovelace. This is a very small amount of currency, and is only used for transactions that are worth very little money.

Longing (Long Position)

When an investor buys a cryptocurrency with the hope of selling it later at a higher price, they are said to be in a long position.


Coin Mixer

Coin mixers are a way to make cryptocurrency transactions more anonymous by mixing them up with transactions from different addresses. This makes it difficult to track the initial sender or receiver of the assets.

Market Signal

Signaling can create volatility in a market, which can help investors identify opportunities.

Medium of Exchange

A medium of exchange is an intermediary that is used to help facilitate a sale, purchase or trade between two or more parties.

Max Supply

The maximum number of coins that will be in circulation in the lifetime of the cryptocurrency is known as the total supply. This is different from the circulating supply, which is the amount of coins that are currently in use. The total supply will eventually reach its maximum and will not increase any further.


Masternodes are servers that are owned and maintained by their owners. They offer additional functionalities such as anonymizing transactions, clearing transactions, and participating in governance and voting. Dash was the first cryptocurrency to popularize masternodes, and they are rewarded for their service to the blockchain.


Marlowe is a programming language that enables anyone to write smart contracts for financial products, without any programming knowledge or expertise. It was developed by Input Output Hong Kong (IOHK).

Market Order/Market Buy/Market Sell

When someone buys or sells a cryptocurrency on an exchange, they are doing so at the best available price at that moment.

Market Maker, Market Taker

When someone places an order to buy or sell a security at a quoted price, they are making a maker trade. When someone accepts that order to buy or sell at the quoted price, they are making a taker trade.

Market Capitalization/Market Cap/MCAP

The total value of a cryptocurrency is determined by its price and the number of units in circulation. This is often used as a rank to compare different cryptocurrencies.

Market Balances

Market balances are the total number of tokens or coins after a trade has been made on a decentralized exchange. This number can vary depending on the volume of the trade.

Margin Trading

Cryptocurrency margin trading is a practice where a trader uses borrowed funds from a broker in order to trade a cryptocurrency. This can result in greater profits, but also greater losses, so it should only be attempted by experienced traders.

Margin Call

If the value of an investor's account falls below the margin maintenance amount, the account is said to be "margined out." This means that the investor is no longer able to trade until they deposit more money into their account or their account value grows back above the margin maintenance amount.

Man-in-the-Middle Attack (MITM)

A man-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyberattack where a perpetrator intercepts or meddles with communications between two parties in order to eavesdrop on or manipulate the conversation.


Malicious software, also known as malware, is a type of software that is harmful and used by bad actors to illegally access or compromise a computer, network, or server.


The business world is a place where people come to buy and sell products and services. This can be done in an online or offline setting, depending on what works best for the buyer and seller. In either case, there is usually some type of commercial transaction occurring.

Maker Protocol (MakerDAO)

The Maker Protocol allows users to leverage their assets as collateral in order to get rewarded with DAI. By doing this, users can gain access to the stability and liquidity of DAI while still retaining ownership of their assets.

Mainnet Swap

The mainnet swap is when a cryptocurrency project moves from one blockchain network to another. This usually happens when the project switches to its own native blockchain network.


A blockchain that operates separately from any other blockchains, with its own technology and protocol.


A mainchain is the most important layer of a blockchain, where all transactions are processed and finalized. This is where all the important data is stored and kept secure.

Metaverse-as-a-Service (MaaS)

MaaS is a service that provides the necessary infrastructure for users to create their own virtual experiences. This can include things like immersive environments, in-game token economies, and Non-Fungible Tokens. MaaS makes it easy for developers and non-technical users to create these virtual spaces.

Metcalfe’s Law

Metcalfe’s Law states that a network’s value increases as the number of users on that network increases. This is because each user can access a greater number of resources and connections on the network.

Micro Cap

A digital asset with a very small market capitalization is often referred to as a micro-cap stock/asset/cryptocurrency in the financial sector. This means that its value is much lower than most other assets on the market. Micro-cap stocks/assets/cryptocurrencies can be a great investment option for those who are willing to take on more risk, as they have the potential to grow much more rapidly than other assets. However, it is important to remember that they also come with a higher degree of risk, so it is important to do your research before investing in them.

MicroBitcoin (uBTC)

One millionth of a bitcoin or 0.000001 of a bitcoin


A micropayment is a small online transaction that can be as small as a fraction of a cent.


Microtransactions are a business model where small payments are made for digital goods and services. This can include pages of an ebook, items in a game, or any other digital good or service. Microtransactions allow for people to pay for what they want, when they want it, without having to commit to a larger purchase. This makes it a more flexible option for consumers, and also allows businesses to make more money off of smaller transactions.

Mid Cap

Mid cap is a measure that determines the market value of a cryptocurrency with a market capitalization ranging from $1 billion to $10 billion.


MilliBitcoin, also known as μBTC, is a sub-unit of Bitcoin that is equivalent to one-thousandth of a BTC. It is a valuable cryptocurrency that is becoming more and more popular all over the world.

Mimetic Theory

Mimetic theory is a way of understanding why humans behave and act the way they do. It takes into account how things become desirable to individuals, specifically in the context of economics.


Cryptocurrencies with the ability to generate new cryptocurrencies through the process of confirmation are called mineable. This means that miners can be rewarded with newly-created cryptocurrencies for creating blocks through contributing their hash power. There are also cryptocurrencies that are generated only through other mechanisms, such as annual inflation through staking. These cryptocurrencies are said to be not mineable.

Megahashes Per Second

MH/s is a unit of measurement that tells you how many million hashes your computer can do per second.


A metaverse is a digital universe that contains all the aspects of the real world, such as real-time interactions and economies. It can offer a unique experience to end-users, who can immerse themselves in it and enjoy different activities.


A metatransaction is a way of executing a transaction on behalf of someone else, without them having to do it themselves. This is done by signing the original transaction with another party's signature, and then putting it on the public blockchain.


Etherwall is a digital wallet that allows users to manage and transfer Ethereum. It is an extension to a regular browser, allowing users to easily access their Ethereum funds. Etherwall also provides security features, such as two-factor authentication, to help protect user funds.

Merkle Tree

A tree structure in cryptography, in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. This allows for quick identification of data blocks at each level of the tree.

Mercenary Capital

The term "mercenary capital" refers to the money that investors provide to a platform with the intention of taking advantage of its short-term incentive programs for personal gain.


A mempool is a collection of unconfirmed transactions that a node seen.

Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)

A Memorandum of Understanding is a written agreement between two or more parties that outlines the intention of the parties involved, but is not legally binding.


Memecoins are a type of digital token that was created as a joke or meme. They are claimed to offer huge gains to holders, although this has not been confirmed.

Meme Economy

Meme Economy is a online subculture in which memes are treated as if they were commodities or capital assets with various prices. This economy is satirical, meaning that it is meant to mock real-world economic systems. In Meme Economy, memes can be bought and sold for profit, and people can make a living by creating or trading memes.

Miner Extractable Value (MEV)

Miner extractable value (MEV) is a measure of the profit a miner can make by choosing which transactions to include in their blocks. This allows them to earn fees from the transactions they include, as well as from the new bitcoins created with each block.


Minecraft is a video game where players can use different blocks to create and destroy things in a three-dimensional world.


People who contribute to the blockchain by mining can be professional miners or organizations with large-scale operations, or hobbyists who set up mining rigs at home or in the office.

Mobile Wallet

A mobile wallet is a crypto wallet that is installed on a mobile device.


Mnemonics are memory aids that use a system of letters or associations to help you remember things. They can be really helpful when you need to remember a lot of information.

Mnemonic Phrase

A list of words that can be used to access or restore your crypto assets.


Minting is the process of creating new coins on the blockchain using the proof-of-stake mechanism. These new coins are then added to the circulation and can be traded.


An alternative term to Fish, describing someone with a small crypto investment. This term is used because a small investment in crypto can be seen as insignificant when compared to other larger investments.

Mining Rig

The equipment that is used for mining cryptocurrencies can be very expensive. This type of equipment is used to calculate and verify the transactions for a digital currency. The miners use this equipment to compete against each other in order to add new blocks of data to the blockchain.

Mining Rewards

Mining rewards are the rewards that crypto miners receive for confirming new transactions and adding them to the blockchain.

Mining Reward

The rewards that miners receive for finding and confirming a block.

Mining Pool

Miners pool their resources together to increase their chances of finding the next block.

Mining Difficulty

The mining difficulty of a cryptocurrency is how difficult it is to find a new block. This difficulty is determined by how much hashing power is being used by miners. The more hashing power that is being used, the more difficult it becomes to find a new block.

Mining Contract

Cloud mining is a term used to describe the process of renting or investing in mining capacity online. This allows users to mine cryptocurrencies without having to purchase and maintain their own hardware.

Mining as a Service (MaaS)

Cloud mining is a way to mine cryptocurrencies without having to purchase and maintain your own mining hardware. With cloud mining, you can rent the mining capacity of hardware in companies that offer this service. This allows you to get started with mining with minimal investment, and it also eliminates the need to deal with the noise and heat generated by mining hardware.

Mining Algorithm

Mining algorithms are the sets of rules that computers use to generate valid blocks in a blockchain.


The act of verifying transactions and adding blocks to a blockchain is called mining. This is also how new bitcoin and other altcoins are created.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

A minimum viable product is a product that has just enough features to attract early-adopter customers and validate a product idea.

Minimum Collateralization Ratio (MCR)

The MCR is the amount of collateral that is needed to be pledged against a given loan. It is the least amount of collateral that is needed in order to secure the loan.

Mining Farm

Mining farms are groups of miners who work together in order to get the best results possible. This can be done for a variety of reasons, like using less energy.

Moore’s Law

Moore's law is a trend that states that computer speed and capability will continue to increase while costs decrease.

Motoko Programming Language (DFINITY)

The programming language for developing projects that will run on the Internet Computer blockchain is called Blockchain C. It is designed to be simple and efficient so that developers can easily create applications that run on the blockchain.


One of the newer innovations in the blockchain world is move-to-earn. This is a concept that encourages users to stay physically active by incentivizing them with crypto-based rewards. Essentially, you can earn crypto by completing physical tasks, such as walking or running. This is a great way to motivate people to stay healthy and active, while also earning some extra money.

Moving Average (MA)

The moving average is a technical indicator that reacts to the trends of the financial market. It is used by market experts to predict the direction of an asset's trend.

Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD)

A technical analysis is a way of looking at a piece of technology to understand how it works.

Multi-Coin Wallet

A multi-coin wallet, also known as a multi-chain wallet, allows users to store more than one type of cryptocurrency that belongs to multiple blockchain networks.

Multi-level Marketing

Multi-level marketing, also called pyramid selling, is a business model where people sell products on behalf of a company. They are paid commissions based on their sales and the sales of the people they recruit.

Multi-Party Computation

Multi-party computation (MPC) is a system that allows multiple parties to compute something together without any of them seeing the other parties' data.

Multi-Party Computation as-a-Service

MPC as-a-service is a business model where customers can rent MPC nodes from a provider instead of having to build them themselves. This allows companies and individuals to take advantage of the benefits of MPC without needing the resources or expertise to set it up themselves.

Multi-Signature (Multi-Sig)

A multiple key authorization system is a security measure that requires more than one key to authorize a transaction. This makes it more difficult for someone to hack into the system and steal information or money.

Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS)

The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) is responsible for regulating money supply and managing interest rates, inflation rate, and currency values in Singapore.


A money transfer service is a business entity that provides money transfer services or payment instruments. This can include things like sending money through a bank, or transferring money between accounts. Money transfer services can be helpful for people who need to send or receive money quickly and easily.

Money Transmitter

A money transfer company is a business that provides money transfer services or payment instruments.

Money Transfer License

Money transmitter businesses must have a Money Transmitter License in order to operate legally.

Money Market

A financial market where people borrow and lend money for short periods of time.

Money Laundering

Money laundering is a way to hide money that you got from an illegal business. This is done by moving the money through different accounts or businesses so that it is harder to track.

Money Flow Index (MFI)

The Money Flow Index (MFI) is a technical indicator that measures the buying or selling pressure of an asset through price and volume. It is used to identify whether the money is flowing into or out of the asset, and can be helpful in predicting future price movements.


Money is a valuable resource that helps to make trade easier by serving as a medium of exchange. It also allows people to store their wealth securely.

Monetary Policy

Monetary policy is a set of rules that the central bank in a country creates to control the amount of money in circulation.

Moloch DAO

Moloch DAO refers to a DAO framework, a description of a DAO that uses the framework, or the name of the Ethereum grant-giving DAO that originally created the framework.

My Story (VeChain)

A digital assurance system that is built on a blockchain by DNV and VeChain. This system provides a high level of security and trust for businesses and consumers. It is designed to help ensure the safety and quality of products throughout the supply chain.


Multisignature wallets require more than one signature to authorize a transaction. This makes them more secure, as it is more difficult for someone to steal your funds if they only have one signature. This also makes them more versatile, as you can require multiple signatures from different people in order to authorize a transaction.

Mutual Credit Line

Mutual credit is a way of exchanging goods and services without using money. Each participant in the network creates money by issuing credits to others in the network. This money can then be used to buy things from other participants. This system relies on trust, because participants have to be willing to trust each other with their money.


Notarization on Blockchain

Notarization on blockchain is a way to timestamp an artifact using the security and features of blockchain technology. This can be done by anyone, and the author and identity of the artifact can be easily identified at any point in time.


When a miner hashes a transaction, they create a unique number to be used only once, called a nonce.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

NFTs are cryptocurrencies that are not all the same. This means that they don't all have the same value, and they can't be easily replaced or exchanged with each other.

Non-fungible Assets

The term "non-fungible assets" refers to the non-fungibility of a particular set of assets that are all issued by the same party.


A non-custodial setup is one where the user holds the private keys directly. This is opposed to setups where the keys are held by a third party, such as an exchange or wallet provider. This can be important for security, as it means that the user is in control of their funds at all times.


Nominators are one of two main actors who participate in a blockchain network that uses the nominated proof-of-stake (NPoS) consensus algorithm. This means that they play a major role in validating blocks and securing the network.


Node.js is a runtime environment that can be used for both servers and desktop apps. It's cross-platform, meaning it can be used on different types of devices, and it's Javascript-based, which makes it easy to learn and use.


A blockchain is a digital ledger that is used to store data. It is made up of a series of blocks, which are connected together. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, as well as the data it stores. This allows the blockchain to be verified and trusted


No-coiners are people who have no cryptocurrency in their investment portfolios and firmly believe that cryptocurrency will fail as a whole.

Nifty Gateway

Nifty Gateway is a decentralized platform that allows users to create and trade NFTs. It was created by the Winklevoss twins, who are well-known for their successful investment in Bitcoin.

Nick Szabo

Nick Szabo is a computer scientist who invented Bit Gold, and the use of smart contracts. Bit Gold is a precursor to Bitcoin, and is a digital currency that uses cryptography to secure its transactions and control the creation of new units. Szabo's work on smart contracts has led to their widespread use in many industries today.


A newb is someone who is new to a particular industry and may not know all the ropes yet. They are still learning and may make some mistakes along the way.

Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM)

A Network-Enhanced Virtual Machine (NEVM) is a new type of virtual machine that combines the best features of the Bitcoin and Ethereum networks. This allows for smart contracts to have improved interoperability and scalability, which is necessary for broad mass adoption.

Network Latency

Latency is the time it takes for a message to be sent from one computer to another on a network.


A network refers to all nodes that are currently participating in the blockchain at any given moment in time.

Negative Volume Index (NVI)

The negative volume index (NVI) is a technical indicator that can show how price is being influenced by low-volume timeframes. It does this by measuring the amount of volume that is occurring on lower timeframes compared to the amount of volume that is occurring on the higher timeframes. This can be helpful in determining when price is being driven more by sentiment or volume.



Odysee is a video hosting and distribution platform that doesn't a server. It's built on top of the LBRY protocol.

Open Source

Open source software is a philosophy with participants who believe in the free and open sharing of information in pursuit of the greater good. This allows for people to work together to create innovative and useful software.


Cryptocurrencies start at a certain price during a certain time period. This price is based on the programming principle that software parts can be extended.

Ontorand Consensus Engine (Ontology)

Ontorand Consensus Engine is the VBFT consensus mechanism on the Ontology blockchain. This algorithm uses a verification game to achieve consensus, and is able to handle large numbers of transactions quickly and efficiently.

Online Storage

The act of storing cryptocurrencies in devices or systems that are connected to the internet.

One Cancels the Other Order (OCO)

A situation where two orders for cryptocurrency are placed simultaneously, but with a rule in place to enforce that if one is accepted, the other is automatically cancelled.

On-Ledger Currency

A cryptocurrency that is both created and used on a blockchain ledger, such as Bitcoin.

On-Chain Governance

On-chain governance is a system that allows for decentralized updates and improvements to blockchain networks. This allows for a more democratic process and helps keep the network running smoothly.


On-chain transactions are those that are recorded on the blockchain and shared with all of the participants. This means that they are transparent and cannot be altered without everyone's consent.

On-Balance Volume (OBV)

OBV is a technical trading indicator that forecasts an asset's price movements by analyzing the volume flow.

OHM Fork

OlympusDAO and Ohm Forks are upgrades to OlympusDAO's codebase that have given birth to a variety of forked products.

Offshore Account

An offshore account is a bank account that is set up in a foreign country. This type of account typically has assets and investments that are located outside of your origin country or country of residence.

Offline Storage

The practice of storing cryptocurrencies offline in devices or systems not connected to the internet.

Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC)

The Office of the Comptroller (OCC) is a U.S. Treasury branch that oversees all national banks, federal savings associations, federal branches and foreign bank agencies.

Off-Ledger Currency

Currency that is not created on the blockchain, but is still accepted or used.

Off-Chain Transaction

Off-chain transactions are defined as transactions that take place on a separate network from the blockchain, and move value outside of it.

Off-Chain Governance

Off-chain governance is a way of making decisions about a blockchain outside of the main codebase. This can be done informally, through discussions among stakeholders, or more formally, through dedicated off-chain governance mechanisms. Off-chain governance can be used to make decisions about anything from updates to the protocol to the allocation of resources on the blockchain.


A transaction that is processed quickly and cheaply outside of the blockchain network.

OpenSea [2021]

OpenSea is a decentralized platform for exchanging digital assets called non-fungible tokens, or NFTs. These assets can include anything from game items to collectible cards to real estate. Transactions on the OpenSea platform are secure and trustless, meaning that they are executed without the need for a third party. This makes OpenSea a safe and convenient place to buy, sell, or trade NFTs.

Opera Mainnet (Fantom)

Opera is a framework that allows anyone to engage in the network through staking and governance. Opera is permissionless and open-source, which means that anyone can use it to participate in the network. This makes Opera a very democratic platform, as it gives everyone an equal opportunity to be involved.

Operating System (OS)

An operating system is a program that manages the resources of a computer. It sits between the hardware and the user, providing a layer of protection and organization. Operating systems can provide a graphical user interface, or GUI, which allows users to interact with their computers using icons and visual representations of programs and files.


Cryptocurrencies that are bought and sold by more and more investors over time, with their prices increasing for an extended period of time, are known as "bullish".


When a cryptocurrency has been sold by more and more investors over time, it generally means that the price is decreasing and it may be a sign that the currency is not doing well.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Trading

Over-the-counter refers to the process of how securities are traded without going through a centralized exchange. This allows for more flexibility and can be more cost effective for some investors.

Over-the-Counter (OTC)

An over-the-counter (OTC) transaction is one that doesn't take place on an exchange. OTC transactions are often made between private parties, without the involvement of an exchange.


Over-collateralization is a technique used to protect lenders from potential losses in the event of a default. This occurs when the collateral pledged by the borrower is worth more than the amount borrowed.

Ouroboros Praos

Ouroboros Praos is a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism developed by IOHK. It is an updated version of Ouroboros Classic, which is also a proof-of-stake consensus mechanism.

Orphaned Block

An orphaned block is a block that doesn't have a parent block.


A valid block on the blockchain that is not part of the main chain. This could be a block that has been created by someone else, or it could be a block that is being created as part of a different blockchain.

Order Book

An order book (sometimes also called an order ledger) is a collection of information that shows all outstanding orders for a particular asset. This can include orders to buy and sell the asset, as well as the prices and quantities involved in each order. The order book can be used to get an idea of how much demand there is for an asset, as well as the current market price.


An agent that finds and verifies information, connecting the real world and the blockchain by supplying data to smart contracts which are executed under specific conditions.

Oracle Manipulation

Oracles are blockchain contracts that are used to access information from the outside world. They can be manipulated by hackers to get information that they shouldn't have access to, which can then be used for malicious purposes.

Options Market

A public market for options would allow buyers to purchase the right to buy or sell a specific cryptocurrency at a set price by a specific date. This would provide investors with greater security and stability when investing in cryptocurrencies.


A call option is a contract that gives the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price.

Optimistic Rollup

An optimistic rollup is a type of layer 2 scaling solution that relies on off-chain computation to trustlessly record transactions that happen in the layer 2. This allows for faster and more efficient processing of transactions, as they do not have to be verified on the blockchain.

Optimistic Oracle

An optimistic oracle uses a dispute/arbitration process to ensure data accuracy. This is different from a price-feed oracle, which relies on nodes to provide consistent price feed data on-chain.


P2P Bridge

A P2P bridge is a feature on decentralized exchanges that enables two users to swap the same cryptocurrency between two blockchain protocols without involving a third party. This allows users to bypass any fees or restrictions that may be in place on one of the blockchains.


Peer-to-peer decentralized exchanges are blockchain-based applications that allow for direct, peer-to-peer trading. This means that there is no central authority or middleman controlling the exchange of assets. This can be thought of as a more trustless and secure way of exchanging assets, as it removes the need for a third party to be involved.

P2P Trading

Peer-to-peer (P2P) trading is a way of exchanging cryptocurrencies without the need for a third party. This can be done by simply interacting with the other user directly. This is a more decentralized way of trading, and is popular with buyers and sellers alike.


Cryptocurrency trading is the process of exchanging one type of cryptocurrency for another. For example, you can trade bitcoins (BTC) for ethers (ETH).

Paper Trading

Paper trading is the practice of trading stocks, commodities, or other securities without using real money. This is done by creating a virtual account and using it to simulate the buying and selling of securities.

Permissioned Ledger

A restricted ledger is designed so that only people or organizations who need access can view it.

Player Payout

Player payouts is a new way of automatically paying online gaming participants immediately after the tournament ends. This system ensures that everyone who participates in a tournament gets paid immediately, without having to wait for a payout. This makes it easier for people to participate in tournaments, and eliminates the hassle of waiting for payments.

Play2Earn (Play-to-Earn)

The play-to-earn business model rewards players who bring value to its metaverse with financial compensation.

Play-to-Earn (Play2Earn)

The play-to-earn business model rewards players for their contributions to the metaverse. This allows for an open economy in which players can earn financial rewards for their efforts.

Physical Bitcoins

A physical Bitcoin is a physical token that usually has an intricate design, as well as a public key and private key. This allows for secure transactions between two parties.

Phone Phishing

Phone phishing is a scam where someone tries to get your personal information or money by calling you on the phone. They may pretend to be from a company or organization that you know and trust, like your bank or the IRS. They may ask you to provide personal information like your Social Security number or account password, or they may try to get you to wire them money. Be very careful about any phone calls that ask for personal information or threaten you with legal action if you don't give them what they want. If you're not sure whether a call is legitimate, hang up and call the organization's customer service number yourself to check.


When someone tries to scam you by pretending to be a trustworthy institution or person in order to get your sensitive information, they're using a technique called phishing. This can involve sending you a link that looks legitimate but is actually a piece of malware, designed to steal your passwords, banking details, and other private information.

Perpetual Contracts

A perpetual contract is a type of futures contract that doesn't have an expiration date.


A permissionless system is one where there is no entity that can regulate who can use it and how it can be used. This describes blockchains, which are often used to store data and make transactions.

Pegged Currency

A stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency whose value is pegged to real-world asset, such as a fiat currency. This means that its value remains relatively stable, as opposed to other cryptocurrencies which can be highly volatile.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending

Crypto P2P lending is a way of loaning assets without the involvement of a middleman. This type of lending relies on collateral material that was originally owned by borrowers.

Paper Wallet

A physical document that stores your private key or seed phrase.


Parachains are a special type of data structure that run in parallel to each other on the Polkadot network.

Participation Node

The Algorand platform has participation nodes in order to help with the Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS) consensus process.

Passive Income

Passive income is money that you earn from investments where you don't have to be actively involved. This can include things like rental income or interest payments on savings accounts. It's a great way to make money without having to work too hard.

Password Manager

A password manager is a tool that helps you store all of your passwords for different online applications and services. This can make it easier to keep track of all your passwords, and also means you don't have to remember them all yourself.

Paul Le Roux

Paul Le Roux is a criminal mastermind believed by many to be the founder of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto.


A payee is a party that can receive payment in an exchange of goods or services.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

Distributed networks can be more efficient because tasks or workloads can be distributed between peers. This way, there is no need for a central authority to manage everything. This also makes the network more resilient, because if one peer goes down, the others can still function.


A peg is a set price that is used to calculate the exchange rate between two assets.


The sale of a cryptocurrency to specific investors in advance of it going public.

Plutus (Cardano)

The scripting language used for developing smart contracts on the Cardano blockchain is Haskell.

Politeia (Decred)

Decred is a decentralized governance platform that allows stakeholders to submit, track, and discuss proposals for the suggestion and implementation of new ideas. This allows for a more democratic process for decision-making within the Decred community.

Ponzi Scheme

An investment where someone pays money to get supposed returns from a new group of people investing.


A collection of digital currencies or crypto-assets held by an investment company, hedge fund, financial institution, or individual.

Portfolio Tracking

Portfolio tracking is the process of monitoring the movement and performance of assets in your financial portfolio, which can include stocks, commodities, mutual funds, ETFs, cryptocurrencies, and NFTs.

Position Size

A position size is very important when trading because it can affect your potential profit or loss. It's also important for risk management, knowing when to execute larger or smaller trades, and when to increase or reduce the size of a position. This impacts profitability.


The retroactive creation of new coins following a cryptocurrency’s launch, before public mining is possible, is known as a premine.


Pre-IDO refers to token offerings that take place before the actual initial DEX offering. This is a way for companies to raise money and get their tokens out there before the IDO happens. This can help to build excitement and anticipation for the IDO.


When a coin's initial supply is generated before or during the public launch, it is known as a pre-mine.

Prediction Market

Prediction markets are markets where people can trade the likelihood of future events happening. This can give you a sense of how the crowd thinks an event will turn out.


Proof-of-burn is a system that can prevent fraudulent transactions and improve the overall efficiency of a blockchain. By "burning" coins, or sending them to an address where they can't be used again,proof-of-burn creates a secure and efficient way of preventing fraud while also helping to keep the blockchain running smoothly.

Proof-of-Authority (PoA)

The consensus mechanism used by a blockchain delivers comparatively fast transactions, using identity as a stake.

Proof of Attendance Protocol

Proof of Attendance Protocol (POAP) is a business that uses the ERC-721 NFT protocol on Ethereum to give individuals a unique, non-fungible blockchain-based identifier. Only the person can access this identifier.


Programming is the ability to follow specific instructions. This can be done by a machine or a human.

Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement

A profit and loss statement is a financial document that summarizes the earnings, costs, and expenditures incurred during a specified period.

Procedural Programming

Procedural programming is a way to tell a computer what to do step-by-step in order to complete a task.

Private Key/Secret Key

The content is a piece of code generated during the asymmetric-key encryption process, paired with a public key. This code is used to decrypt information that has been hashed with the public key.

Private Blockchain

A private blockchain is a type of blockchain where only a single organization can control the network. This allows that organization to have more control over who can access the blockchain and what transactions are allowed on it.

Price Impact

The difference between the market price and the estimated price due to trade size is that the market price is the true price of a security whereas the estimated price due to trade size is an estimation of the true price. The estimation is based on how large or small the trade size is in relation to the average trade size.


In simple terms, PoSt means that someone can now guarantee that they will use a certain amount of storage space.

Public-Key Infrastructure

A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a system used to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates. It also manages public-key encryption.

Public-Key Cryptography

Public-key cryptography is a way to keep data secure by disguising it as random noise. It uses a pair of keys- a public key and a private key- to encrypt and decrypt data. The public key can be shared with anyone, while the private key must be kept secret. This makes it difficult for someone to hack into your data, since they would need both keys to decipher it.

Public Sale

A public sale is the final stage of an ICO in which a company offers its token to the public at a reduced price before the token is listed on cryptocurrency exchanges.

Public Key

A public key is a series of alphanumeric characters used to encrypt messages into ciphertext.

Public Blockchain

A blockchain that is accessible to anyone and can be used to store data.

Public Address

A public address is a cryptographic hash of a public key, which can be used to request payment from others.


Using a fake name, such as Satoshi Nakamoto, when writing is a common way to protect one's identity.

Protocol Layer

The protocol layer of the blockchain is responsible for governing how the network operates. This includes the different algorithms that determine how consensus is achieved, and who gets to create new blocks.


The set of rules that define how people interact on a blockchain-based network, usually involving consensus, transaction validation, and network participation.

Proof-of-Work (PoW)

A blockchain consensus mechanism that relies on solving of computationally intensive puzzles in order to validate transactions and create new blocks. *see Proof-of-Stake (PoS).


Proof-of-validation (PoV) is a consensus mechanism that uses staked validator nodes to achieve consensus.

Proof-of-Time (PoT)

Proof-of-Time is a consensus algorithm that uses validators' ranking scores and stake to check event data. It is decentralized, scalable, and environmentally-friendly.

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)

A consensus mechanism that uses both Proof-of-Work and something else to maintain the integrity of blockchain.


Proof-of-replication (PoRep) is a way for a storage miner to prove that they are storing an entirely unique copy of a piece of data. This is done by creating a hash of the data and then sharing this hash with the network. If someone wants to verify that the data is being stored correctly, they can use the hash to confirm that the data is the same on all nodes.

Proof-of-Immutability (PoIM)

Proof-of-Immutability is a new way of storing data on a blockchain in a way that is decentralized and cannot be changed. This helps to protect people's privacy by keeping their data safe from being altered.

Proof-of-History (PoH)

Proof of History nodes have internal clocks that keep track of time and validates events. The incoming events are hashed using a verifiable delay function, also known as VDF, which increases the speed and scalability of a blockchain.


Proof-of-donation refers to the use of blockchain technology to manage and track donations. This allows donors to see how their money is being used and makes it easier to donate to charities. It also allows charities to easily track and manage donations.

Proof-of-Developer (PoD)

Any verification that can provide evidence of a real, living software developer who created a cryptocurrency in order to prevent an anonymous developer from taking any raised funds without delivering a working model.

Proof-of-Burn (PoB)

A consensus mechanism that aims to bootstrap one blockchain to another with increased energy efficiency by verifying that a cost was incurred in burning a coin by sending it to an unspendable address.

Pyramid Scheme

A pyramid scheme is a scam where the people at the top make money by recruiting new people into the scheme, while the people at the bottom lose money.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme

Cryptocurrency fraud is when someone artificially inflates the price of a cryptocurrency by making false or misleading statements about it.

Pure Proof of Stake (PPoS)

Proof of Stake is a consensus mechanism that allows random selection of validators based on the consistency of their stakes.

Put Option

A put option contract allows you to purchase an underlying security at a certain price within a given time frame.


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

RFID technology uses radio waves to identify a tagged item or individual. This is done in a passive way, meaning that the tag does not need to be powered in order to be scanned. This makes RFID a convenient choice for many applications, including tracking items in a warehouse or identifying people as they walk through a door.

Regenerative Economy

A regenerative economy is an economic system that benefits the environment and society as a whole. This type of economy is circular, meaning that materials and resources are reused rather than wasted. This approach is beneficial for the planet, because it reduces pollution and conserves natural resources. It also helps to create jobs and stimulate the economy.


The term refers to something that is more than what is needed for normal operation.

Recovery Seed

A recovery seed is a code composed of a list of random words used to recover your cryptocurrency if you lose your wallet. They typically range between 12 and 14 words in length.


A new token has been created that adjusts its circulating supply automatically according to price fluctuations. This allows the token to remain stable in value, despite changes in the market.


Rebalancing is the process of adjusting the weight of a portfolio of assets in order to maintain a desired level of risk and return. This involves buying or selling assets periodically in order to keep the desired allocation.


Ransomware is a type of malware that hackers use to steal or encrypt their victims’ files in order to extort them for a ransom. This can involve asking for money in exchange for decrypting the victim’s files, or restoring them to their original state.


The position of a cryptocurrency's market capitalization is relative.

Raiden Network

Ethereum's Plasma is a proposed scaling solution that would enable near-instant, low-fee and scalable payments on the Ethereum blockchain. Plasma is similar to Bitcoin's proposed Lightning Network in that it uses off-chain transactions to improve the scalability of the blockchain.


When a member of a DAO decides they no longer want to be a part of it, they can "rage-quit" by withdrawing their stake and leaving the DAO with a proportional share of its assets. This usually happens when someone is unhappy with how the DAO is being run or when they feel that their voice isn't being heard.

Relay Nodes

Relay nodes help the network by relaying messages between nodes and maintaining the integrity of the blockchain. This is done by ensuring that the core nodes are authentic and the blockchain is intact, even if one or more relay nodes are hacked.

Regenerative Finance (ReFi)

Regenerative finance is a way to use money as a tool to solve some of the world's most difficult issues. It involves using methods such as green and impact investing to direct money towards projects that can improve our environment and society. This can include things like renewable energy, sustainable agriculture, and social justice initiatives. By using regenerative finance, we can work to create a more sustainable and equitable world.


Regen is a term used to describe people who use blockchain technology to advance positive environmental impact. They invest in tokens that use blockchain technology to make a difference in the world.

Regional/Local/Community Currencies

There are different types of local currencies. A local currency is one that is spent in a certain geographical location. A regional currency refers to a local currency utilized in a larger area, and a community currency is often used within a specific community as a means of exchange. These currencies are used to promote and support the local economy.


Regulation is when something is controlled by a specific set of rules. This could be anything from the way we run our businesses, to the way we drive on the road.

Regulatory Compliance

Compliance with regulations is a necessary part of any business. By tracking and following regulations, businesses ensure that they are behaving in a responsible manner and are accountable for their actions.


Rehypothecation is a process where brokers use the assets that have been put up as collateral by clients for their own benefit. This can include using the assets as collateral for other loans, or investing them in other ways. Brokers are not allowed to do this without the explicit permission of the client whose assets are being used.


Being "rekt" means losing a lot of money in a trade.

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

The relative strength index is a momentum oscillator that measures the speed and change of price movements. It can be used to identify overbought and oversold conditions in the market.

Relay Chain

The Relay Chain is the main chain that is used by the Polkadot network.

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is energy that is constantly replenished. This can come from solar, wind, or other natural resources.

Repair Miners

Mining nodes within the Filecoin network that specialize in repairing corrupted files are proposed.

Replay Attack

Replay attacks are when someone intercepts communications between a sender and receiver in order to steal information or to disrupt the communication.

Replicated Ledger

A copy of the blockchain is stored on all devices that are participating in a cryptocurrency network. This allows for quick and easy verification of transactions by all participants.

Resistance (Line/Level)

The highest price that an asset reaches during a specific period is called the peak price.


A difficulty adjustment algorithm is used to regulate the rate at which new blocks are mined on proof-of-work blockchains. This helps to ensure that the blockchain remains secure and that transaction times remain consistent.

Revenue Participation Tokens

Revenue participation tokens are a system that uses two tokens: a participation token and a payout token. The participation token is used to participate in the revenue sharing process, and the payout token is used to receive payments from the revenue sharing process.

Reverse ICO

In a reverse ICO, a company that is already established raises money by selling tokens to its customers in order to shift its structure to decentralization.

Reverse Indicator

A person who you should not use as an indicator of how to place buy or sell orders because they are always wrong at predicting price movements of cryptocurrencies.


Rust is a programming language that supports multiple programming paradigms, similar to C++.

Ryuk Ransomware

Ryuk ransomware is a type of ransomware that was first discovered in August of 2018.

Rug Pull

Rug pulls are a type of scam where developers take money from their investors and then abandon the project.

Ruby (Programming Language)

Ruby is a programming language designed for simplicity and code readability. It has a focus on high-level code, which makes it easy to read and understand.

Roth IRA

Roth IRAs are a good investment option if you think your taxes will be higher in retirement than they are now. This is because Roth IRAs allow you to pay taxes on your contributions now, rather than when you withdraw the money in retirement. This can save you a lot of money in taxes over the course of your retirement.


ROI is a measure of how profitable an investment is. It is calculated by dividing the net profit by the cost of investing.

Roger Ver

Roger Ver is a long-term proponent of both Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash. He believes in the potential of Bitcoin and supports its growth.


A roadmap is a summary of a product's vision and direction, usually in the form of a visual map.

Ring Signature

A digital signature is a way of verifying the identities of two parties involved in a transaction. It uses cryptography to obscure their identities, ensuring that no one else can impersonate them. This provides a high level of security and trust between the two parties involved.

Ring Miners

Ring miners are individuals who manage order rings and ensure that all trades within the ring are completed. This is an important responsibility, as rings are the basic building blocks of Loopring's decentralized exchange. By ensuring that all trades are executed properly, ring miners help to create a more efficient and liquid marketplace.

Ring CT (Confidential Transactions)

RingCT is a feature that hides the transaction amounts in Monero. This helps keep the privacy of transactions intact.


Satoshi (SATS)

The smallest unit of bitcoin is known as a "satoshi." A satoshi is worth 0.00000001 bitcoin, or one hundred millionth of a bitcoin.


Computer scripts are a series of written commands that are carried out by a computer program or language.


A scholarship is when a manager loans their free Axies to new players and earns passively from the battle rewards.


A scammer is someone who tries to take advantage of people by doing fraudulent things.


A scamcoin is a type of cryptocurrency that is created with the sole purpose of making its developers rich quick.


This is a scheme that tricks people out of their money or cryptocurrency.

Scaling Solution

A scaling solution is a way to enable a system to grow. This can be done by adding new resources, such as more servers or storage, or by using automation to increase capacity without needing extra people.

Scaling Problem

The scaling problem refers to the limitations of a blockchain's ability to handle a large number of transactions and to have low-cost transactions.

Satoshi Nakamoto

The person who created Bitcoin

Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is a platform that enables computers to understand and interact with information in a more meaningful way. This allows for things like automatic data entry, organization, and retrieval.


A shard is a divided blockchain network that has its own data. This means that it can operate independently from the rest of the blockchain and can handle its own transactions. Shards are created when the blockchain is too large to be processed by a single node and must be split into multiple parts.

Shamir’s Secret Sharing

Shamir's Secret Sharing is a way to securely share highly sensitive information, like encryption keys, by splitting the information into multiple parts called shares.


A cryptographic hash function that generates a 256-bit signature for a text, used in Bitcoin proof-of-work (PoW). This function is used to create a unique, unchanging identifier for a text, which is important for preventing fraud in the Bitcoin system.

Settlement Layer

A settlement layer is a layer that provides a foundation for an entire ecosystem. This layer helps to stabilize the ecosystem and allows for growth and development.


Settlement refers to the process by which a user executes limit or market orders on an order book based decentralized exchange.

Sell Wall

A situation where a lot of people place orders to sell a certain cryptocurrency when it reaches a certain price.

Selfish Mining

A miner who finds a new block but does not broadcast it to the other miners is in a "mining deadlock."

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

This is a proposed Bitcoin Improvement Proposal that aims to fix transaction malleability. Malleability is a problem that affects Bitcoin transactions, where the transaction ID can be changed after the fact. This can cause problems for some applications that use Bitcoin, such as escrow services. The proposed fix would aim to make it more difficult to change the transaction ID after the fact.

Seed Phrase

The single starting point when deriving keys for a deterministic wallet is a passphrase.

Security Token

A security token is like a digital form of traditional securities. They are both ways to represent an ownership stake in something. Security tokens can be used to represent ownership in all sorts of things, from companies to real estate. This makes them a popular way to invest and raise money.

Scripting Programming Language

A scripting language is a programming language that does not require the compilation step. It uses a high-level construct to carry out one command at a time. This makes it easy to use and perfect for small tasks or scripts.


An alternative proof-of-work (PoW) algorithm to SHA-256, used in Bitcoin mining. Scrypt mining relies more heavily on memory than on pure CPU power, aiming to reduce the advantage that ASICs have and hence increasing network participation and energy efficiency.

Second-Layer Solutions

A set of solutions that build on top of a public blockchain in order to improve its scalability and efficiency, especially for micro-transactions or actions. These solutions include, TrueBit, Lightning Network and more.

Secondary Market

A secondary market is a place where investors or traders can buy and sell different kinds of assets or securities with each other. This can include stocks, bonds, options, and futures. Secondary markets provide a way for people to get out of investments they no longer want, and to make money by buying and selling assets at a profit.

Secure Element

A secure element is a type of chip that is used to run a specified number of applications. This helps to keep your information and data secure.

Security Token Offering

A security token offering (STO) is a way to raise money by selling digital securities. These securities are tokens that represent ownership in a company or other asset. STOs are different from initial coin offerings (ICOs), which are used to raise money by selling digital coins or tokens.

Secure Multi-Party Computation (sMPC)

SMPC is a cryptographic method that allows two or more parties to compute a function without revealing the inputs.

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

The Securities and Exchange Commission is an independent agency within the United States federal government that is responsible for enforcing federal securities laws, proposing new securities rules, and regulating the securities industry, as well as the nation's stock and options exchanges.


A security is a type of financial instrument that is fungible and tradable. This means that it can be exchanged for another security of the same type, and that it has a monetary value.


Sia is a blockchain-based platform that provides decentralized content storage. This means that users can store their data on Sia's blockchain, and no third party is needed to host the data. This makes Sia a more secure and private option than traditional content storage providers.

Simplified Payment Verification (SPV)

A lightweight client that can be used to verify blockchain transactions.

Simple Agreement for Future Token (SAFT)

A SAFT is a contract between a token issuer and an investor that creates rights to ownership of the tokens at a future date. It is treated as a financial security, and is regulated by government institutions.


This is a type of scam that takes advantage of two-factor authentication measures.

Silk Road

The FBI shut down an online black market that existed on the dark web. This market was known for selling illegal items and services.


Signals are notifications that tell investors when it might be a good time to buy or sell a particular asset.


A sidechain is a separate blockchain that is connected to its parent blockchain via a two-way peg. This means that transactions on the sidechain are mirrored on the parent chain, and vice versa. This allows for assets and tokens to be transferred between the chains without having to go through an exchange.

Side Channel Attack

A side channel attack is a method of hacking that takes advantage of a computer's unintentional tells that give away information.

Short Squeeze

A short squeeze is a sudden increase in the price of a coin or token, which encourages traders who are betting against the price of the token to buy it to avoid losses.


A short sale is a trading technique in which a trader sells an asset that they do not own, with the expectation that the price of the asset will decline. In the event that the price does decline, the short seller will then buy the asset at this lower price to return it to the lender, making a profit.

SHO (Strong Holder Offering)

A strong holder offering (SHO) is a way for a company to raise money by choosing investors based on their on-chain activities and other proprietary data sets.


A coin with no obvious potential value or usage. This could be a worthless coin that someone is trying to get rid of, or it could be a rare coin that is worth a lot of money. If you are thinking about buying this coin, you should do some research to find out its true value.


Pumping a cryptocurrency or ICO project is when someone promotes it with a lot of enthusiasm. They might talk about how great it is and how everyone needs to get on board.

Shielded Transaction

A shielded transaction is a type of transaction that is encrypted and can only be accessed by the two parties involved.

Shielded Address

A shielded address is a unique identifier that is generated for a shielded transaction. This is a type of payment that is made using the blockchain network, but without revealing any related information to the public.

Shiba Inu Token (SHIB)

The Shiba Inu token (SHIB) is a digital currency that is based on the Ethereum network. It is used to buy and sell goods and services, and to exchange other currencies. SHIB can also be used to reward content creators for their work.

Shelley Phase

The Shelley Phase of Cardano is named after Percy Shelley, an English Poet. This phase is focused on the development of a decentralized, peer-to-peer and autonomous system that will allow users to manage their own finances and transactions.


Sharding is a way to split up the blockchain into different parts that can be processed in parallel. This helps to scale the blockchain so that it can handle more transactions and data

Shard Chain

Sharding is a way of splitting up the data in a blockchain network, so that different parts of the network can process different transactions. This can help reduce congestion on the network, and also increase the number of transactions that can be processed per second.


When traders can't get the price they want, they experience slippage. This is when the price moves and they end up settling for something different than what they originally asked for.

Slot (Cardano)

The smallest time period in the Cardano blockchain is called a "block". Blocks are created every 20 minutes and contain all the transactions that have taken place in that time period. This makes it easy to keep track of all the activity on the blockchain and prevents any fraudulent activity from happening.

Spoon (Blockchain)

A hard spoon is a protocol that creates a new blockchain by copying the data of an existing blockchain. This can be used to create a new blockchain with different rules, or to create a new fork of an existing blockchain.

Speculative Investment

Speculative investment is an investment where the investor expects to make a lot of money, but there is also a very high risk that they will lose all their money.

Spear Phishing

Spear phishing is a type of cyber attack that uses your personal information to trick you into clicking on a malicious link in an email.


A special purpose acquisition company (SPAC) is a company that is formed by investors in order to publicly list an organization without going through the troubles that come with the traditional IPO process.

Source Code

A source code is a written collection of lines in a high-level programming language.


Ethereum is a programming language that is used to develop smart contracts.

Software Wallet

A software wallet is an application that allows users to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies.

Software Stack

A software stack is a set of software products or components that work together to provide a particular function.

Software Library

A software library is a collection of code that can be referenced while developing other executable programs. This code is written by someone else and is usually organized in a way that makes it easy to find and use. Libraries can be used to save time and effort when creating new programs.

Soft Peg

A soft peg is a way of keeping the value of a currency stable by using an exchange rate regime.

Soft Cap

An ICO is a way for a new company to raise money by issuing their own cryptocurrency. They set a minimum amount that they want to raise, and people can buy into the ICO by sending them some of their chosen cryptocurrency.

Social Engineering

Social engineering is the use of deception to trick people into doing something or revealing their personal information.


A snapshot in the blockchain world is the act of taking a picture of the blockchain at a specific block height. This can be used to track the status of the blockchain or to document any changes that have taken place.

Smart Treasury (Balancer)

Smart treasury is a mechanism that allows automatic buyback of project tokens in the DeFi industry. This can be helpful in keeping the token's price stable and preventing inflation.

Smart Token

Smart tokens are simply tokens that not only transmit value, but also contain all the information needed to execute a transaction. This makes them more efficient and secure, as there is no need for a separate transaction process.

Smart Home

A smart home is a technology that allows you to manage and automate household systems, like lights, doors, thermostats, security alarms, and other connected equipment from a distance.

Smart Contract Audit

A smart contract audit is a process by which security professionals check the code behind a smart contract to ensure that it does not contain any security vulnerabilities.

Smart Contract

A smart contract is a computer protocol that facilitates, verifies, or enforces a contract without the need for third-party involvement.

Soft Fork (Blockchain)

A protocol upgrade where only previously invalid transactions are made valid, with most soft forks requiring miners to upgrade their mining software.

Stochastic Oscillator

A stochastic oscillator is a popular technical indicator that is used to identify overbought and oversold levels in stocks, assets, and cryptocurrencies. This indicator relies on an asset's price history as it tends to fluctuate within a specific price range.

Stop-Loss Order

A stop-loss order is a type of order that investors use to protect themselves from incurring too much loss on an asset. Basically, you set a price at which you are willing to sell your asset, and if that price is reached, the order will automatically sell your asset for you.

Storage (Decentralized)

Decentralized storage is a way of storing files on a network of nodes instead of on a single server. This makes it more secure, because if one node goes down, the file is still available on other nodes. It also makes it easier to access files from anywhere in the world, because you can just download them from any of the nodes.

Storage Miners

Storage miners are people who offer their storage space to nodes in order to help them reach consensus and validate transactions.

Storage Node

Storage nodes are an essential part of the Storj decentralized cloud storage network. These nodes store data for users, and are compensated for their with Storjcoin X (SJCX).

Store of Value

A store of value is an asset, commodity or currency that can be safely saved and retrieved in the future without it losing any value.


A stroop is a very small unit of Lumen (XLM).

Subgraph Manifest

The Subgraph component entails information about the subgraph's data sources, templates, and more.


Substrate is a web app development framework that is developed by Parity Technologies. It enables developers to create fast and reliable web applications.


A supercomputer is a very powerful computer that is specifically designed for advanced, heavy duty tasks.


Spyware is a type of malware that records all the activities on an electronic device.

Stale Block

A block which is not on the longest blockchain, usually because another block at the same height was added to the chain first.


A contract or transaction to buy or sell a cryptocurrency immediately for settlement on the market.

Spot Market

A public market where people can buy and sell cryptocurrencies directly with each other, as opposed to a futures market where settlement is due at a later date.

Spot Trading

Spot trading is the immediate buying and selling of a financial instrument at the current price.


A cryptocurrency that is designed to have low volatility, making it a good option for portfolio diversification. This can be done through a variety of means, such as being backed by gold or pegged to a fiat currency.


Stagflation is a condition where the economy has high inflation and low economic growth at the same time. This happens when there are more goods and services being demanded, but companies are unable to increase production as quickly as needed which leads to price increases. Meanwhile, people have less money to spend because of slow wage growth, so demand decreases and the economy slows down.


PoS systems allow users to secure the blockchain by locking up tokens as collateral to serve as a validator. In return, they receive rewards based on their contribution to the network. PoS systems are more efficient and secure than proof-of-work (PoW) systems, and are therefore becoming more popular.

Staking Pool

Staking pools allow users to combine their resources in order to increase their chances of earning rewards. This mechanism offers more staking power to the network to verify and validate new blocks.

State Channel

A second-layer scaling solution that reduces the number of on-chain transactions necessary. This is done by moving the transactions off-chain and letting participants sign to the main chain after multiple off-chain transactions.

Synthetic Asset

Synths are a type of digital asset that combines the features of both cryptocurrencies and traditional derivative assets. In other words, synths are tokenized derivatives. This makes them a very versatile investment tool, as they offer the security and liquidity of traditional derivatives, as well as the potential for profits from price movements in the underlying cryptocurrency. As such, synths can be a great way to add diversification to your portfolio.

Supply and Demand

The levels in an economy that determine the market's willingness to buy or sell assets or services are supply and demand.

Supply Chain

A supply chain is the process that a product or service needs to go through before reaching the customer. This includes the steps that are necessary to get the product or service from the supplier to the customer.

Supply Chain Attack

A supply chain attack is a way for hackers to access information by compromising suppliers to major companies, governments and other organizations. This can give them valuable information that they can use for their own purposes.


A swarm is a group of peers that are sharing the same torrent. This means that they are all downloading and uploading the same file at the same time.

Swing Failure Pattern (SFP)

A swing failure pattern is a trend reversal indicator that can be used to identify a weakness in the current trend and predict early reversal signs.

Swing Trading

Swing trading is a market technique that aims to profit from short to medium-term price changes in stocks, commodities, and/or currencies over a period of days or weeks.

Sybil Attack

Sybil attacks can be very disruptive to an online network by creating a large number of fake accounts or nodes. This can upset the balance of power and can cause a lot of damage to the network.


Cryptocurrency tickers are symbols used to represent digital currencies like Bitcoin. For example, BTC is the symbol for Bitcoin.


T-Address (Zcash)

T-addresses are one of two types of addresses used with the privacy-focused cryptocurrency, Zcash. They are used when transparency is desired.

The Cantillon Effect

The Cantillon Effect is a change in relative prices that results from a change in the money supply. This effect is caused by the way that new money is injected into the economy. When the money supply increases, the new money will flow to those who are best able to use it. This will cause prices to increase more than wages, which will result in a profit for those who received the new money.


An alternative blockchain that is used by developers for testing.

Terahashes Per Second

Th/s is a unit that indicates the power of a computer or mining machine. It is equivalent to 1 trillion hashes per second.

Technical Indicators

A technical indicator is a tool used by traders to help them make informed decisions about where to invest. Technical indicators are based on historical price, volume, and open interest data. This data can be used to identify patterns and trends in the market that may indicate where prices are headed in the future.

Technical Analysis/Trend Analysis (TA)

Statistical analysis is a way to evaluate the market in order to make investment decisions. Charts and other tools are used to identify patterns in price and volume in order to understand what is driving the market. This information can then be used to make informed decisions about where to invest.

Tardigrade (Storj)

Tardigrade is a decentralized cloud storage service that is provided by the Storj platform.


Taproot is a proposed soft fork for Bitcoin that would improve privacy and other aspects of more complex transactions.


The Tangle is a blockchain alternative that uses directed acyclic graphs. This alternative is unique because it only builds in one single direction and in a way that it never repeats. Additionally, it is quantum-computing resistant.

Tamper-Proof Ledger

A tamper-proof ledger is a system of records that is very difficult to tamper with. This is because the records are distributed across many different computers, so it would be very difficult to change them all.


The amount of cryptocurrency that can be traced back to another account.

Token Generation Event (TGE)

Token issuance time refers to the time at which a token is created.

Token Issuance

Token issuance is the process of creating new tokens and adding them to the total token supply of a cryptocurrency. This can be done in a variety of ways, such as through a crowdsale or by mining.

Token Economy

An economy of goods and services that can run without intermediaries and third parties with the help of the blockchain technology is called a decentralized economy.


A token is a representation of a crypto asset that has been "tokenized" on the blockchain


A tipset is a set of blocks that make up a blockchain, rather than a chain.


This is a type of identification that is used to track a certain transaction.


A condition that must be met in order for a transaction to be processed is that it happens at a certain time or block on the blockchain.

Time-weighted Average Price (TWAP)

The time-weighted average price (TWAP) is a trading indicator that shows the average price of an asset as it rises and falls during a given or specific time period.

Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM)

Time-Weighted Automated Market Maker (TWAMM) is a program that aims to help traders execute large orders without causing too much slippage or paying high gas fees. It does this by finding buyers and sellers who are willing to trade at the desired price without pushing the market away from that price.

Ticker Symbol

The ticker symbol is a unique combination of letters assigned to stocks or cryptocurrencies that helps identify them on exchanges and other trading applications.


Cryptocurrencies are identified by a unique abbreviation. This abbreviation is used to uniquely identify the cryptocurrency and is often seen on exchanges and in other financial documents.


Throughput is how many things can be done within a certain time frame.

This Is Gentlemen

This is good news, gentlemen.

Think Long Term (TLT)

A mindset where you have a longer-term investment horizon of months to years is called a long-term mindset.

The Merge (Ethereum 2.0)

The merge is a network upgrade that has combined the Ethereum mainnet and the Beacon Chain. It has transitioned from the proof-of-work consensus mechanism to the proof-of-stake system.


The DAO was the first decentralized organization that was created by a group of developers in April 2016. This organization was unique because it was autonomous, meaning that it was self-governing and did not rely on any external authority.

Token Lockup

Token lockup is a time period during which a cryptocurrency's tokens cannot be exchanged or traded.

Token Migration

Token migration is the process of moving tokens from one blockchain to another in order to make a change to the blockchain.

Token Sale

A token sale is when a new cryptocurrency token is offered to private investors before it goes on the market. This allows the creators of the new token to raise money to develop their project.

Token Standard

The most common token standard today is the Ethereum Request for Comment or ERC. This standard is used to create tokens that are compliant with the Ethereum network.


Tor is a network that helps protect users' privacy by encrypting their traffic and routing it through a series of relays. This keeps the user's identity and activities hidden from anyone who might be trying to spy on them. Tor is a great way to stay safe online.


TRC-10 is an acronym for Tron Coin, which is a type of cryptocurrency.

Transactions Per Second (TPS)

TPS is a measure of the number of transactions that can be processed in a given of time.

Transaction Triggers

A transaction trigger is an event that causes a financial transaction to take place. For example, a purchase made with a credit card would be a transaction trigger.

Transaction Fee

A transaction fee is a fee charged by a financial institution for performing a transaction. The fee may be charged for each individual transaction or for a set number of transactions within a given time period.

Transaction (TX)

A Transaction (TX) is a set of operations that are executed together as a single atomic unit. Transactions provide a means of enforcing atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability (ACID) when modifying data.

Trading Tournament

A Trading Tournament is a contest in which traders attempt to earn the highest profits by buying and selling stocks.

Trading Bot

A trading bot is a software program that interacts with financial exchanges, and places buy and sell orders on behalf of the user.

Trade Volume

Trade Volume refers to the total worth of a company's assets that have been traded over a specific period of time. This includes stocks, bonds, and other securities.

Total Value Locked (TVL)

The total value locked in a protocol represents the number of assets that are currently being staked.

Total Supply

The total number of coins that exist is the amount of coins minus any coins that have been burned.

Total Exchange Volume

The total exchange volume is a measure of how much value has been traded on an exchange.

Toll Bridge

A toll bridge is a bridge that uses a smart contract to charge a toll fee in order to unlock access to extra functionalities.

TokenSets (Set Protocol)

TokenSets is a decentralized platform for managing crypto portfolios that uses a set protocol. This allows users to keep track of their holdings and make changes to their portfolios quickly and easily.


Tokenomics is the study of how cryptocurrencies work, including how they are created and how their supply is managed. This includes setting up rules for how much new cryptocurrency is released and when, as well as plans for what to do with any excess currency.

Tokenized Stocks

Tokenized stocks are digital assets that are traded on exchanges using blockchain technology. This is a new way of trading stocks, and it is becoming more popular because it is more secure and efficient than other methods. With tokenized stocks, you own a piece of the company that you invest in, and you can trade your stock shares on a blockchain-based exchange.

Tokenized Securities

Tokenized securities are when the ownership of a security is represented by a token. This could be something like company shares, which are then given out as tokens to investors. This makes it easier to trade and own these securities, as well as easier to keep track of them.

Tokenized Carbon Credits

Tokenized carbon credits represent carbon that has been removed from the environment. One metric tonne of carbon removed translates to one carbon credit.


The process of tokenizing assets involves turning physical things into digital units that can be owned and traded. This is often done to make it easier to manage and trade these assets, as well as to create a new type of asset that can be used in blockchain-based transactions.

Token Swap

Token swaps can be used to exchange one type of cryptocurrency for another, or to move tokens between different blockchain platforms.

Treasury Bond (T-Bond)

A Treasury Bond (T-Bond) is a debt security issued by the United States Department of the Treasury. T-Bonds are long-term government debt securities with maturities of 10, 20, or 30 years.

TRC-20 Token

A TRC-20 token is a digital asset that is used to represent a specific cryptocurrency on a blockchain network. TRC-20 tokens are created and managed using smart contracts, which allows them to be traded on decentralized exchanges.

Treasury Bills (T-Bills)

A Treasury Bill (T-Bill) is a short-term debt security issued by the United States Department of the Treasury. T-Bills have maturities of one year or less and are sold at a discount to their face value.